Charahealth and safety organizationcteristics of a World Class Safety Management System

Source Defining World Class EHS An Analysis of leading EHS management system practices of Robert W.Campbell Award Winners, The Campbell Institute, National Safety Council

The National Safety Council eliminates prevenle deaths at work, in homes and communities, and on the road through leadership, research, education and advocacy.

All businesses ce complexities and the uncertainty of running a successful business. Regardless of these challenges, world class safety organizations keep safety firmly aligned with other organizational objectives, strategies, and values. This alignment is done through corporate visioning, strategic planning and budgeting activities.

World class organizations make a meaningful difference in the way their business performs, the lives of their employees, the communities that surround them and the environment. Ultimately, while the characteristics outlined can help lead your organization toward a world class safety program, it is important to note that you must design your safety management system in a manner that is unique and tailored to your specific organization, with a goal of continual improvement.

One overarching theme observed within these organizations is that world class organizations fundamentally believe that safety is at the core of business vitality and intrinsic to operational excellence and financial performance. These organizations embrace this concept and build it into the very foundation of their safety management system SMS. A world class safety management system models the following five key characteristics that organizations can incorporate in their own safety processes.

Organizations with worldclass safety records rely on a combination of leading and lagging indicators to promote and monitor continuous improvement activities of safety management systems. By focusing on both s of measurements, the organization is able to evaluate the effectiveness of the entire management system, with an eye towards specific measurable improvement.

Organizations that have successfully utilized a systemsbased approach to safety management have done so by adopting and adapting existing industry standards and international guidelines to ensure that safety is seamlessly integrated across all business functions, structures, and geographies, including consideration of contractors. Worldclass safety organizations also integrate their systems across safety systems, and in many cases, quality, security and sustainability. By utilizing this integrated approach, safety processes and values become embedded in the way the company does business, rather than an additional initiative that requires special attention.

In addition to striving for safety excellence on the job, worldclass organizations extend their efforts to promote the health and safety of their employees offsite, as well as investing resources in the surrounding communities and environment. Offthejob initiatives and corporate citizenship are supported through the sponsorship of programs and events, volunteering, community outreach, and improving global issues.

The Campbell Institute, theNational Safety Councilcenter of excellence for environmental, health and safety management, is the leading authority on safety best practices. In the ll of , members of theCampbell InstituteResearch Knowledge subcommittee conducted a comparative analysis of ten awardwinning organizations to identify best practices that are common within recognized world class safety programs.

Safety excellence hinges upon the ability of iniduals throughout an organization from the CEO to frontline employees to contribute to building and sustaining an organizational culture that places safety on par with business performance. Management must lead by example which will drive employees to feel engaged with the message and empowered to make a difference.Charahealth and safety organizationcteristics of a World Class Safety Management System

Journal ofhealth and safety organization Safety Research

Improving safety culture through the health and safety organization A case study

The effect of a gearshift interlock on seat belt use by drivers who do not always use a belt and its acceptance among those who do

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The direct costs of tal and nontal lls among older adults United States

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The state of the residential fire tality problem in Sweden Epidemiology, risk ctors, and event typologies

A hierarchical ctor analysis of a safety culture survey

Using interactive virtual presence to support accurate installation of child restraints Efficacy and parental perceptions.

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NOIRS National Occupational Injury Research Symposium

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The direct costs of tal and nontal lls among older adults United States

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Safety impacts of bicycle infrastructure A critical review.

Safety impacts of bicycle infrastructure A critical review.

Is there agreement between worker self and supervisor assessment of worker safety performance? An examination in the construction industry

Does a towbar increase the risk of neck injury in rearend collisions?

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Impact of inidual resilience and safety climate on safety performance and psychological stress of construction workers A case study of the Ontario construction industry

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Using interactive virtual presence to support accurate installation of child restraints Efficacy and parental perceptions.

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Safety risk assessment using analytic hierarchy process AHP during planning and budgeting of construction projects

Workers compensation loss prevention representative contact and risk of losttime injury in construction policyholders

A hierarchical ctor analysis of a safety culture survey

Improving safety culture through the health and safety organization A case study

Using interactive virtual presence to support accurate installation of child restraints Efficacy and parental perceptions.

The effect of a gearshift interlock on seat belt use by drivers who do not always use a belt and its acceptance among those who do

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Rage against the machine? Googles selfdriving cars versus human drivers

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Thrill and adventure seeking in risky driving at work The moderating role of safety climate.

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Thrill and adventure seeking in risky driving at work The moderating role of safety climate.

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Access to trauma centers for road crashes in the United States

Safety impacts of bicycle infrastructure A critical review.

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Impact of inidual resilience and safety climate on safety performance and psychological stress of construction workers A case study of the Ontario construction industry

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The state of the residential fire tality problem in Sweden Epidemiology, risk ctors, and event typologies

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Does a towbar increase the risk of neck injury in rearend collisions?

Thrill and adventure seeking in risky driving at work The moderating role of safety climate.

Is there agreement between worker self and supervisor assessment of worker safety performance? An examination in the construction industry

Special Issue Papers from the National Occupational Injury Research Symposium

TheJournal of Safety Researchis a multidisciplinary publication that provides for the exchange of scientific evidence in all areas ofsafetyandhealth, including traffic, workplace, home, and community. While this research forum invites submissions using rigorous methodologies in all related areas, it focuses on basic and applied research in unintentional injury and illness prevention. Affiliated with the National Safety Council, it seeks to engage the global scientific community including academic researchers, engineers, government agencies, policy makers, corporate decision makers, safety professionals and practitioners, psychologists, social scientists, and public health professionals.Journal ofhealth and safety organization Safety Research

health and safety organizationWorld Health Organization

As our food supply becomes increasingly globalized the need to strengthen food safety systems in and between all countries is becoming more and more evident. Codex has been playing a key role internationally in the area of food standards, with its dual mandates of protecting the health of consumers and ensuring ir practices in the food trade.The th Session of the FAO/WHO Codex Coordinating Committee for Asia ASIA was hosted by the Food Safety and Standard Authority of India in New Delhi, India from to September. Speaking at the inaugural session, Dr Poonam Khetrapal Singh, Regional Director, WHO Regional Office for SouthEast Asia highlighted that International food trade is now a . trillion dollar a year industry and the urgent need to strengthen food safety systems in and between all countries.

languages available! Translations mainly initiated by countries for use in health promotion and training activities.

Bhutan Agriculture and Food Regulatory Authority

Globally, billions of people are at risk of foodborne diseases FBDs and millions ll ill from these every year. Many die as a result of consuming unsafe food. FBDs can also affect economic development through the tourism, agricultural and food export industries. The SouthEast Asia Region has the second highest burden of FBDs after the African Region, with more than million cases and deaths annually. This report will support policymakers in implementing the right strategies to prevent, detect and manage foodborne risks to improve food safety.

International Food Safety Authorities network INFOSAN

National Food Safety Authority links in SouthEast Asia Region;

National Agency for Drug and Food Control Indonesia

Department of Food Technology and Quality Control , Ministry of Agriculture Development, Government of Nepal

Codex Committee on Contaminants in Foods CFUtrecht Netherlands to March Codex Committee on Food Additives FAXiamen China to March Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods RVDFChicago United States of America to April Codex Alimentarius Commission CACRome Itlay to July

Contact UsFood Safety,World Health Organization SEAROIP Estate, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, New Delhi, India

WHO developed a distance learning tool DLT in collaboration with the Chulabhorn Research Institute Bangkok, Thailand, a WHO Collaborating Centre. This DTL should be used by scientists and risk managers to analyse the food contamination data submitted to GEMS/Food. A password protected access to the learning tool is available upon request to .

Burden of foodborne diseases in WHO South East Asia Region

Central Food Control Administration Sri Lanka

Food Safety programme World Health Organization

Food safety messages for public awareness DPRK

The Government of TimorLeste officially became the th Member of the Codex Alimentarius Commission on st February . The government feels that a strong national food control system will play a critical role in ensuring safe food consumption, protecting consumers health, and cilitating good trade practices towards achieving successful human and economic development. The major challenges are development of appropriate legal framework, setting national food standards, promoting multisectoral collaboration for food safety, eslishing laboratory and riskbased food inspection system as a part of National Food Control System. Many development partners including WHO and other UN agencies have been working together to support the Government of TimorLeste in the areas of health sector.

Health shealth and safety organizationystems

Environment and Health Task Force meeting kicks off national planning in key areas

Our flagship report maps health trends, charts progress towards achieving health goals and provides an advance base for health policy

A new analysis from WHO/Europe, released on Universal Health Coverage UHC Day alongside a global UHC monitoring report, compares financial protection in Czechia, Estonia and Latvia. It concludes that households in these broadly similar countries experience markedly different levels of financial hardship when using health services.

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Important statements of or about WHO policy in the European Region

Putting peoples health needs first Spain makes strides towards patientcentred care

Third summer school on pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies

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Improving quality of care and prevention of drugresistant TB in eastern Europe and central Asia

Highlevel regional meeting Health Systems Respond to NCDs

European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies

Health systems are responsible for delivering services that improve, maintain or restore the health of iniduals and their communities. This includes the care provided by hospitals and mily doctors, but also less visible tasks such as the prevention and control of communicable disease, health promotion, health workforce planning and improving the social, economic or environmental conditions in which people live.

Health the European policy for health and wellbeing

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health and safety organizationQuality Health Safety and Environment

SGS Acquires The Govmark Testing Services, Inc., USA

We have the largest network of highly skilled and experienced auditors and trainers worldwide, and cilities and laboratories that are available round the clock. We will provide a clear assessment of your processes and organization to empower and encourage your staff to consistently put quality first, improve performance and ensure your quality management meets international standards.

We understand the aspects of quality management that are key to increased productivity customer satisction, but also increased effectiveness, maximum output and quality control. At SGS, our network of quality management specialists provide training for continuous improvement, auditing and certification services to ensure that your quality management system is effective and in accordance with global best practices. Our services dedicated to quality management, cover processes, products and services.

Phased Array PA and TOFD in Lieu of RT Fabrication and InService

Rotor Imbalance Blade Pitch Angle Measurement

Ensuring that your products and services are ahead of your competitors in the marketplace is key to growth, and maintaining and improving that quality is a continuous challenge.

Phased Array PA and TOFD in Lieu of RT Fabrication and InService

The REC and SGS collaboration will mainly focus on the development of the Russian exports.

SGS is pleased to announce the acquisition of The Govmark Testing Services, Inc., based in Farmingdale, New York.

Following recent research around synthetic polymer contamination in bottled water, SGS mobilizes its international network of ISO accredited laboratories to support the consumer water industry.

Testing for Plastic Particles in Bottled Drinking Water

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The heart of effective quality management for any business is understanding and delivering products and services in line with clients requirements, with maximum effectiveness.

SPIEF The Russian Export Center and SGS Signed Cooperation Agreement

Construction Health and Safety Organisations Associations and Governing Bohealth and safety organizationdies

The research function of this public body is particularly noteworthy, as the efforts carried out by the Health and Safety Executive in this respect have resulted in vastly improved occupational standards that have been beneficial to both employers and workers in the construction industry. For example, research carried out by this UK public body highlighted the need for personal protective equipment, especially in highrisk industry sectors like construction. The Health and Safety Executive published the Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations in , which made wearing hard hats and safety footwear mandatory in construction sites. There are also regulations concerning other s of personal protective equipment, including high visibility clothing, gloves, goggles, safety harnesses, ceshields, gauntlets, etc. Detailed information on the personal protective equipment regulations can be found at

Construction companies can find their local safety group by visiting

The Health and Safety Executive is the United Kingdoms foremost public body when it comes to health and safety matters. This organisation was founded in and it has since been headquartered in Liverpool. Although the HSE is a nondepartmental body, it is currently sponsored by the Department for Work and Pensions.

Safety Groups UK was founded in under the name of The National Health and Safety Groups Council. Since its foundation, this organisation has had mainly a coordinating function, helping bring together the various working groups and organisations that exist in the UK and that are devoted to raising health and safety awareness and standards throughout the country. Safety Groups complements the work of the Health and Safety Executive and of the Institution of Occupational Safety and Health by working at grass roots level, organising seminars throughout the year and encouraging small and mediumd construction enterprises to promote best practice in the workplace.

The Institution of Occupational Safety and Health was created with similar goals to those of the Health and Safety Executive. However, this organisation does not have regulatory powers, as the institution has been registered as a charity since the early s. The Institution of Occupational Safety and Health was created in with the objective of raising awareness at national and international level in all matters related to health and safety at work. Some of its key functions include funding and running informative campaigns, lobbying political bodies, promoting the exchange of information between members, putting together public resources and arranging professional development training courses, and funding iniduals and / or organisations that are devoted to improving occupational health and safety standards.

The Occupational Health and Safety Advisory Services have been offering health and safety support and advice to both public and private organisations over the past years. This institution specialises in providing independent advice on topics like asbestos management, occupational health, occupational hygiene, health surveillance, and risk assessment. The main objective of this organisation is to help businesses and public bodies create a healthier and safer working environment. This institution also offers tailored advice to construction companies on subjects like policy implementation, risk assessment, noise assessment, vibration measurement, and independent health and safety auditing procedures.

Construction Health and Safety Organisations, Associations and Governing Bodies

To find more information on the Health and Safety Executives functions, publications, and advice, visit its official website at More details about the CONIAC are available at

Promoting a safety culture in the workplace and ensuring that the relevant legislation is enforced is a crucial function of every organisation in the construction industry. Due to the importance of this function and in order to improve the occupational safety standards of this industry at national level, it has been necessary to create several associations and governing bodies. Below you will find a guide to the most important public bodies and organisations involved in occupational health and safety matters in the United Kingdom.

Shortcuts to sections of the BritAssoc siteArchitects

Today, the Health and Safety Executive functions as a regulatory body for the construction industry and it has created a specialised advisory committee to take care of all health and safety matters related to this industry. The CONIAC Construction Industry Advisory Committee holds regular public meetings on topics like safe construction planning, construction site strategy, construction design and management regulations, etc. However, the Health and Safety Executive does not limit its functions to a regulatory role, since it currently has other duties, such as disseminating information and statistics, providing advisory services, arranging training, and funding and carrying out research.

Construction Health and Safety Organisations, Associations and Governing Bodies

British Associations Site and contents

This organisation has a specialist construction group, which has more than , members nationwide. This working groups aims to identify and promote best practice in the construction industry. Further information about its strategies and upcoming events can be found at

To learn more about the services offered by this institution, visitConstruction Health and Safety Organisations Associations and Governing Bohealth and safety organizationdies

SKF health and safety organizationGroup Policy Environment Health and Safety

SKF health and safety organizationGroup Policy Environment Health and SafetyUN Global Compact and other principles and charters

utilise best practice EHS related technology and management to improve EHS performance, through purchase and design of efficient equipment and services.

proactively assess health and safety risks, environmental and energy impacts and systematically define, document and implement improvement plans,

Responsibility towards business partners, employees, society and shareholders.

SKF Group Policy Environment, Health and Safety

All SKF employees are expected to adopt and to act upon this Group Policy.

SKF Group Policy Environment, Health and Safety

ensure that EHS impacts are analysed for all business decisions.

give top priority to the health and safety of all employees,

ensure that EHS performance and compliance to this policy is monitored, documented and communicated in a clear and transparent way towards employees, authorities and other stakeholders and

provide well designed and attractive work places and cilities,

require suppliers and subcontractors to adopt the principles of this policy,

define objectives and targets and provide the resources, information, training and management attention needed to comply with this policy,

We in SKF are committed to achieve world class Environment Health and Safety EHS standards. It is the responsibility of each and every one of us to ensure that we reach this goal by continually improving our performance. We shall prevent work place accidents and pollution, promote employee health and wellbeing and reduce the environmental impact of what we do, including those related to energy use.We shall;

SKF Group Policy Environment, Health and Safety

consider applicable laws, regulations and other commitments to which SKF subscribes as minimum requirements,

develop and offer products and services which provide customer value in terms of improved EHS performance throughout the complete life cycle,

Food Safety What you shoulhealth and safety organizationd know

Remove food from its packaging before defrosting. Do not use foam trays and plastic wraps because they are not heat sle at high temperatures; melting or warping of the trays or wraps from the heat of the food may cause harmful chemicals to leach in. Many microwaves have special settings for defrosting. During microwave defrosting, rotate and turn food upside down periodically times during defrosting. Microwaves are absorbed preferentially by water rather than ice, and by the first layer that can absorb the radiation, so turning/stirring the food during the defrosting process improves the evenness of the heat.

Oil is an often essential part of cooking and it is usually added during the first step of cooking. It is desirable to pour some oil into the pan at the beginning rather than later when the pan is very hot. Though using a fresh batch of oil every time is good, it is not always practical and people may tend to reuse it several times.

Most s of foodborne illness cause one or more of the following signs and symptoms

A food recall may be initiated as a result of a report or complaint from a variety of sources manucturers, wholesalers, retailers, government agencies and consumers. Recalls are conducted by food businesses to ensure that potentially hazardous or unsafe foods are not consumed. Microbiological contamination is primary cause of food recall but it may also be due to chemical or radionuclear contamination of food. It is mandatory for consumer protection in industrialized countries where food labelling is compulsory for prepackaged food and commonly practised by multinational food industries.

Chicken is well cooked if the meat is white and there is no pink flesh. Fish is done when it is opaque and flakes easily with a fork.

Ensuring food safety requires due attention during harvest, transport, processing, storage and finally during food preparation and storage by consumers. Processed, frozen or readytoeat food is gaining popularity in recent years due to changing food habits, product ersification, busy life and mass production practices. In urban settings, there is a growing tendency to buy meat, milk and vegeles on the weekend and store these items in the freezer or refrigerator. Microwave ovens are often used for reheating of food. However, while using a refrigerator and microwave are part of daily life in urban settings, most users and food handlers rarely have a chance to learn how to safely store and reheat food. We have, therefore, developed a collection of questions and answers on food safety, considering this knowledge gap among consumers and food handlers, with a specific focus on concerns of regional importance. These questions and answers include topics such as food adulteration and lsification food fraud, unhealthy and unsafe foodhandling practices in food markets and at home, and food allergies.

The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement.

Food odors may develop as a result of food spoilage, which may be associated with power ilure, overloading of refrigerator with food items, or poor hygiene. Strong food odors are frequent after power outages. The following action should be taken to get rid of unpleasant, undesirable food odors;

. Which mycotoxins are concerns from a food safety point of view?

Leave a corner of the dish uncovered to allow the steam to escape. This reduces the risk of the film being blown off and settling on to the food.

Acceple daily intake ADI of a chemical is the daily intake which, during an entire lifetime, appears to be without appreciable risk to the health of the consumer on the basis of all the known cts at the time of the evaluation of the chemical by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues JMPR. It is expressed in milligrams of the chemical per kilogram of body weight.

Pole waterWater which is free from pathogenic bacteria and is palale.

Do not let cling film touch the food during microwave cooking as it melts at a low temperature. In many cases, the film should be removed before cooking in a microwave.

Keep food suces clean. Wash all utensils, plates, platters, and cutlery as soon as used.

. How to avoid adverse effect of acrylamides?

A single foodborne bacterium can grow into more than two million bacteria in just seven hours under the right conditions.

All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use.

Throw back the big fish as the little ones have less time to take up and concentrate pesticides and other harmful residues.

Food safety is everybodys concern, and it is difficult to find anyone who has not encountered an unpleasant moment of foodborne illness at least once in the past year. Foodborne illnesses may result from the consumption of food contaminated by microbial pathogens, toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. Food allergy is another emerging problem. While many foodborne diseases may be selflimiting, some can be very serious and even result in death. Ensuring food safety is becoming increasingly important in the con of changing food habits, popularization of mass catering eslishments and the globalization of our food supply. As our food supply becomes increasingly globalized, the need to strengthen food safety systems in and between all countries is becoming more and more evident. That is why WHO is promoting efforts to improve food safety, from rm to plate and everywhere in between on World Health Day, April . The World Health Day slogan is From rm to plate, make food safe.

Prevention or reduction of human exposure is best done via sourcedirected measures, i.e. strict control of industrial processes to reduce formation of dioxins. Many national authorities have programmes in place to monitor the food supply. This monitoring has led to early detection of contamination and has often prevented impact on a larger scale.

It is difficult to for a consumer to determine whether vegeles or fruits contain pesticide residues as often they do not have any noticeable smell, taste or visual defect. The following precautions can be taken to reduce dietary exposure to pesticide residue if agricultural products are sold in common market;

. What should be done in case of a power cut to a refrigerator for a long time?

Food poisoning from the consumption of poisonous wild mushrooms has been reported frequently during monsoon season in countries of South and SouthEast Asia. In some episodes, the whole milies lost their life due to consumption of poisonous wild mushrooms. Many toxic mushrooms are quite similar in appearance to their less toxic cousins, so often easy to mistake

Refrigerators should be kept clean and dry all the time. The following tips will help to ensure food safety, wholesomeness and quality of food materials;

. What is useby date in the food label and why is it important for a consumer?

Reheat all leftovers until they are steaming hot.

Do not overstock your refrigerator. Overfilling will reduce the circulation of cool air and make difficult the proper cooling or chilling of food materials and beverages.

. Many people taste raw food during the cooking process?

When you pierce the thickest part of the meat with a fork or skewer, the juices should run clear.

Cover foods or wrap leafy vegeles with to retain moisture and prevent them from picking up odors from other foods.

Traditionally, qualities of foods are evaluated by our sensory organs our eyes, nose or mouth or, more recently, by the use of instruments. Sensory evaluation is commonly practised by food regulatory authorities which consists of judging the quality of food by a panel of judges. The evaluation deals with measuring, evaluating, analyzing and interpreting the qualities of food as they are perceived by the senses of sight, taste, touch and hearing.

Many people have an impression that microwave ovens are used mainly for reheating. However, microwave ovens may be used for reheating, cooking and defrosting.

Cooking whole, stuffed poultry in a microwave oven is not recommended. Because food in a microwave oven can cook ster on the outside than food on the inside, the stuffing might not have enough time to reach the temperature needed to destroy harmful bacteria.

Fresh fish has firm flesh, a stiff body and tight scales. If you press the body, no indentation should be left. Select fresh fish, which have red gills and bright eyes. Be sure to purchase fish which have been refrigerated or stored on ice and are not slippery or slimy to touch.

. What are food additives and why are they added?

Food contamination is an even bigger threat in countries of the SouthEast Asia region due to the lack of produce harvesting norms, food handling standards, and environmental regulations.

The problem with reusing oil is that it can create free radicals which can cause ailments in the long run. These free radicals can be carcinogenic i.e. can cause cancer and also atherosclerosis which can lead to increase in bad cholesterol levels, blocking the arteries.

Foodborne pathogen called Listeria can survive and sometimes grow on foods being stored in the refrigerator.

This publication does not necessarily represent the decisions or policies of the World Health Organization.

In , the World Health Report, identified iodine, iron, vitamin A and zinc deficiencies as being among the worlds most serious health risk ctors. The control of iodine deficiency disorders through salt iodization, for example, has been a major accomplishment in public health nutrition over the last years. The focus of the international community for promotion of food fortification has so r been on the three most prevalent deficiencies vitamin A, vitamin B complex, iodine and iron.

A large pot of food like soup or stew should be ided into small portions and put in shallow containers before being refrigerated.

Maximum residual limit MRL is the maximum concentration of a pesticide residue expressed as mg/kg, recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to be legally permitted in food commodities and animal feeds. Respective MRLs are intended to be toxicologically acceple. MRLs which are primarily intended to apply in international trade are derived from estimations made by the JMPR following both

Considering the importance of food labelling for international trade, the Codex Alimentarius Commission has made general and commodity standards and recommendations in relation to food labelling. Food labelling is important for protection of consumer interest. Label declaration on packed food is very important for knowing the ingredients and nutritional value, and helps in checking the freshness of the food and bestbefore dates. It provides a clue for food recall or food withdrawal if situation demands.

. What is acrylamide and how it is produced?

Check useby dates and labels while buying packed food.

Altering environmental conditions in which spoilage microorganisms are unable to grow in the food, e.g. in dehydration, pickling, salting, smoking, freezing etc. Such conditions can be created by removal of water, use of acid, use of oil and spices, use of chemical preservatives and use of low temperatures.

There is no time limit on how long unopened cans will be safe. The usual recommendation for canned foods with low acidity such as vegeles and meats is that they will be good for to years. Acidic canned foods such as fruits, fruit juices and tomatoes will usually still be good quality for to years.

. How safe is food when cooked in microwave oven?

The boiling temperature smoke point of cooking oil is above C.

Food adulteration is an unethical and often criminal malpractice which is unfortunately commonplace in countries of the SouthEast Asia region. It frequently occurs where informal food production and marketing services are predominant and enforcement of food regulation is weak. Adulteration of food is normally observed in its most crude form, where prohibited substances are either added or used to partly or wholly substitute healthy ingredients or to artificially create the impression of freshness in old food. Normally, intentionally adulterating food is done for financial gain. Among food items, spices, due to their inherent naturegreat demand and high price become easy substances for gross adulteration. Other forms of adulteration happen due to carelessness and lack in proper hygienic conditions of processing, storage, transportation and marketing. This adulteration ultimately causes the consumer to be either cheated financially or worse as a victim of illness or disease. However, adequate precautions taken by consumers at the time of purchase of such products can allow them to avoid purchasing such adulterated food.

Mycotoxins are a group of naturally occurring chemicals produced by certain moulds or fungi. They can grow on a variety of different crops and foodstuffs including cereals, nuts, spices and dried fruits. Mycotoxins are produced by several fungi in foodstuffs and feed during production, storage, transportation, often under warm and humid conditions.

If reused cooking oil is dark in colour or is greasy/sticky than it is time to change the oil.

Cover the dish with a lid or plastic wrap approved for microwave use. Allow enough space between the food and the top of the dish so that plastic wrap does not touch the food. Loosen or vent the lid or wrap to allow steam to vent. The moist heat that is created will help destroy harmful bacteria and ensure uniform cooking. Cooking bags also provide safe even cooking.

Food preservation is designed to prevent spoilage and decay of seasonal and perishable foods by increasing the shelflife of food thus increasing the supply and availability throughout the year. Technological advancements such as canning, vacuum packing, refrigeration, freezing and tetra packing have increased shelflife of food.

Hepatitis A virus can cause longlasting liver disease and spreads typically through raw or undercooked seafood or contaminated raw produce.

Cook food thoroughly, to the appropriate temperature.

A meat thermometer is used in modern kitchen which measures the internal temperature of cooked meat and poultry, or any other dishes, to assure that a safe temperature has been reached and that harmful bacteria have been destroyed.

. How long can we keep canned or packaged foods?

Polyethylene terephthalate PET is used to make soft drink, water, sports drink, ketchup, and salad dressing bottles, and peanut butter, pickle, jelly and jam jars. It is strong, heat resistant and resistant to gases and acidic foods. It can be transparent or opaque. Not known to leach any chemicals that are suspected of causing cancer or disrupting hormones and it can be recycled.

Polycarbonate is clear, heat resistant and durable and often used to make refillable water bottles and sterilisable baby bottles, microwave ovenware, eating utensils, plastic coating for metal cans. Tiny amounts of bisphenol A are formed when polycarbonate bottles are washed with harsh detergents or bleach e.g., sodium hypochlorite. At high levels of exposure, bisphenol A is potentially hazardous because it mimics the female hormone estrogen.

. Why there is a concern about acrylamides when it is produced naturally during cooking process?

Unsafe food containing harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites or chemical substances, causes more than diseases ranging from diarrhoea to cancers.

Refrigerate cooked food within two hours of preparation

After removing food from the microwave, always allow a standing time of at least minutes. This completes the cooking process.

There are currently no regulatory maximum limits for acrylamide in food. The following principles can be applied to minimize whatever risk exists

PreservativeSubstance added to perishable foods to prevent spoilage by inhibiting growth of microorganisms.

Bacteria will be destroyed during microwave cooking just as in other s of ovens, so food is safe cooked in a microwave oven, as long as it is heated to the necessary temperature generally above C. However the food can cook less evenly than in a conventional oven. In other words, microwave ovens can cook unevenly and leave cold spots where harmful bacteria can survive. To promote uniform cooking, arrange food items evenly in a covered dish and add some liquid if needed.

In a microwave oven, the air in the oven is closer to room temperature so the temperature of the food suce is often cooler than food in a conventional oven where the food is heated by hot air.

Reuse plastic containers that are food compatible, in the way the original food was presented. For example, you can freeze food in icecream containers but dont heat them in the microwave they were designed for use on cold food.

Useby Date also known as the recommended last consumption date or expiration date is the end of the estimated period after which the product probably will not have the quality attributes normally expected by the consumers as long as it is maintained under the stated storage conditions. In order words, the expiration date is the date up to which the food maintains its microbiological and physical sility as well as the nutrient content declared on the label. That means it is important to use the food before the expiry date to get the most nutritional value from it and to be relatively sure the contents are safe.

Sunflower, soybean, mustard and canola oil have a high smoke point i.e. they do not break down at high temperatures and are therefore suile for frying, including deep frying where the food is submerged into the oil. Oils which do not have a high smoke point such as olive oil should only be used for sauting.

Dioxins are a group of chemicallyrelated compounds that are mainly byproducts of industrial processes but can also result from natural processes, such as volcanic eruptions and forest fires. Dioxins are found throughout the world in the environment and they accumulate in the food chain, mainly in the tty tissue of animals and pass to human body through food, mainly meat and dairy products, fish and shellfish. More than of human exposure is through food, mainly meat and dairy products, fish and shellfish. Shortterm exposure of humans to high levels of dioxins may result in skin lesions. Dioxins are highly toxic and can cause reproductive and developmental problems, damage the immune system, interfere with hormones and also cause cancer.

People should eat a balanced and varied diet, which includes plenty of fruit and vegeles, and should moderate their consumption of fried and tty foods.

Street food vendors are a traditional and indigenous st food approaching most countries of the SouthEast Asia Region. Street food vendors provide cheap and enjoyable food to millions of consumers. It is difficult to say how safe street food is as there are many contributing ctors associated with the safety of street food. A survey of street foods in countries, conducted by WHO, revealed the major health threat cing the public comes from raw and undercooked food, infected food handlers and inadequate hygiene measures in processing and storing such food. Since the majority of street food is cooked well and served hot, there is less chance of food poisoning. The water quality, hygienic conditions and the level of cleanliness particularly in the summer seasonmay contribute to episodes of food poisoning. However improvements in physical infrastructure and hygienic conditions are growing as consumers are also demanding quality food.

Most fresh vegeles and fruits retain their freshness for a short time under ideal conditions of storage and it is always better to buy vegeles in the morning or evening hours depending on harvesting pattern. When purchasing, select fresh vegeles and fruits which are firm, crisp, bright in colour, with no visible bruises or signs of decay and wilting. Be careful as some fruits and vegeles may be artificially coloured to give the illusion of freshness and quality. It is advisable to buy vegeles and fruits which are in season, as the quality is usually high and the price is low.

. Are there natural toxins found in food of plant or animal origin? What should be done to get rid of them?

The mycotoxins of most concern from a food safety perspective include the aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, trichothecenes and zearalenone. The aflatoxins are most commonly found in maize, peanuts and feed as contaminants and it can also be found in the milk of animals that are fed contaminated feed, in the form of aflatoxin M. Some mycotoxins such as trichothecene remain toxic even after being cooked.

. How long can food be preserved in refrigerator?

Mycotoxins can cause a variety of adverse health effects in humans. Aflatoxins B are genotoxic and carcinogenic, and can cause liver cancer in humans. Other mycotoxins have a range of other health effects including kidney damage, gastrointestinal disturbances, reproductive disorders or suppression of the immune system.

Never defrost food at room temperature. Defrost frozen food in the refrigerator, cold water or in the microwave.

Pasteurisation is the most popular method of heat treatment. It involves heating milk to high enough temperatures to kill harmful bacteria that can cause illness. Milk is heated to a high temperature and then rapidly cooled so that heat sle and heat labile pathogens are killed. It does not kill all bacteria, some of which, whilst harmless in the quantities present, will cause the milk to spoil after a few days. Therefore, pasteurization alone does not give a safe shelfsle product without proper storage. Pasteurized milk must be kept in refrigerator but it can be kept for longer period in the freezer chamber.

The following measures should be considered to minimize health hazard of reusing oil;

The mention of specific companies or of certain manucturers products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

Keep food at safe temperatures, both for serving and storage.

Food poisoningA general term applied to all stomach and intestinal disturbances due to food contaminated with certain microorganisms or to their toxins.

. What is the best way to thaw frozen food in a microwave oven?

Trim t from meat, poultry and fish; discard oils and ts in broths and drippings.

Requests for publications, or for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution can be obtained from SEARO Library, World Health Organization, Regional Office for SouthEast Asia, Indraprastha Estate, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, New Delhi , India x ; email.

Use safe drinking water for food preparation.

It should be noted that some bacteria like listeria can grow well under refrigerator and crosscontamination can occur if raw and cooked food or salads are open and kept together. Eggs, cake and some food items may absorb flavour from other food items.

All meat should be checked visually to see if it is cooked thoroughly. The following tips should be considered while preparing meat at home;

Cabbage and related vegeles contain thioglucosides which may be absorbed in people with low dietary iodine, and may contribute to thyroid enlargement.

AntibioticsA substance produced by living organisms that inhibits the growth of other organisms, sometimes used as a growth promoter or food preservative in some countries.

All plastic is made from chemicals that have the potential to harm a persons health. Proper use of plastic packaging lowers chemical migration. Following these tips will help to reduce the migration of chemicals from plastic into food;

Make sure the leftover oil from cooking or frying is cooled down and then transferred into an airtight container through a strainer.

BlanchingDipping of fruits or vegeles in boiling water or exposing these to steam for a few minutes to kill enzymatic and biological activity prior to freezing or processing.

. What kinds of plastics are used for food handling and storage and are there any health hazards of using it?

. What are the priority areas for food fortification?

Coliform bacteriaGroup of aerobic bacteria commonly found in eces; their presence indicates lack of sanitation as in insufficiently treated water for drinking.

There is a general belief that food items can be kept in a freezer for an indefinite period. A refrigerator set to below C will protect most foods but not forever. Over time, even chilled foods will spoil. The cool temperatures slow down bacterial growth but they dont stop the growth completely.

Follow recommendations for cleaning products to be used on containers, bottles and lids.

The informal food production and marketing system is still strong in most countries of the SouthEast Asia Region, which presents challenges for enforcement of food safety regulations. As a result, instances of food adulteration and contamination can occur. Traditionally, societal preferences call for hot and wellcooked food, and even milk is boiled pasteurized. These habits are partially responsible for preventing foodborne infections. Street food is popular in urban settings in many countries. Hygienic conditions are improving, provided that pole water supply and clean cilities are ensured by municipal authorities. The introduction of bottled drinking water and its popularity in urban areas has contributed to prevent waterborne and diarrhoeal diseases in countries with inconsistent water treatment. Political awareness and consumer education on food safety will help strengthen enforcement of food standards, improve hygienic practices, and prevent foodborne illnesses. The WHO Five keys to safer food serve as the basis for educational programmes to train food handlers and educate the consumers. They are especially important in preventing foodborne illness. The Five keys are as follows.

. What are food safety issues related to seafood and fish?

. What precautions should be taken to ensure food safety while using refrigerator or freezer?

Seafood and fish can become contaminated with pathogens such as Vibrio cholera, Salmonella, E. coli, Shigella, Listeria due to human activity or poor hygiene and sanitation during food production and processing. There have been outbreaks of foodborne illnesses and infections linked to consumption of contaminated fish and seafood. In addition, Methyl mercury is formed by bacterial action in an aquatic environment from dumping of industrial mercury as well as natural sources of elemental mercury. Testing of fish against methyl mercury is demanded by most importing countries. Certain parasite larvae can be present in fish, which is why most fish should be cooked thoroughly.

Raw meat, poultry, and seafood should be in sealed containers or wrapped securely to prevent raw juices from contaminating other foods.

Thoroughly cook all meat, poultry and seafood, especially shellfish.

Foods and the ingredients in food products are increasingly grown, processed and consumed in different locations around the globe. This globalization poses new challenges in the conduct of key activities associated with food recalls, such as the traceforward and traceback activities required for a food suspected or confirmed to be unsafe. The FAO/WHO International Food Safety Authorities Network INFOSAN coordinates communication regarding contaminated food which has been internationally distributed to allow for food recalls in importing countries. Such alerts are communicated to national INFOSAN Emergency Contact Points in each country for their attention and action as required.

. What of water is suile for food preparation?

Do not mix raw meat, fish and raw vegeles.

. What is being done to reduce exposure to pesticides?

In , Swedish studies revealed that high levels of acrylamide formed during the frying or baking of potato or cereal products. Studies in laboratory animals suggest acrylamide has a carcinogenic potency in rats that is similar to that of other carcinogens in food, but the intake levels for acrylamide are likely to be higher. A joint FAO/WHO consultation on health implications of acrylamide in foods held in recognized the presence of acrylamide in food as a major concern in humans, given its ability to induce cancers and herile mutations in laboratory animals.

In microbiological terms, there are basically two methods of traditional food preservation;

Definitely long storage will change the quality of the food before the safety is affected. Temperatures over C for an extended time will speed loss of quality. Cans that are rusted or badly dented should be thrown away, no matter their age. Cans and jars with bulging sides or tops should also be thrown away; do not eat any of the food as it may be contaminated with botulinum toxin which can be tal if consumed. Unopened jars or bottles with visible bubbles or disation should also be thrown away.

. How can we reduce the migration of chemicals from plastic into food?

. How safe is organic or locally produced food?

Use vinegar solutions One cup vinegar per gallon of water to wash the interior walls of the refrigerator or freezer.

. What is the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Point system HAP and how does HAP work in food production?

Follow manucturers instructions when using household plastics such as cling films and bags.

The refrigerator or freezer must be empty and unplugged when cleaning.

It is estimated that more than million people worldwide suffer food allergies.

Smoke pointThe temperature at which the breakdown products of t become visible as smoke.

. How to know if meat or fish is properly cooked?

AdditivesNonnutritive substance added intentionally to food, generally in small quantities to improve appearance, flavour, ure or storage properties. Amounts used in food are usually regulated by law.

Carbon monoxide treatment of fish is used where the red colour is an important quality attribute. As a change in colour is used by consumers as a primary assessment of quality, carbon monoxide treatment has the potential to make inferior quality fish appear aesthetically more pleasing to consumers. Therefore, the treatment of fish with carbon monoxide gas is not permitted in Singapore, Canada, the EU and Japan. The use of carbon monoxide to treat fish is undertaken in some Asian countries.

Food should not be cooked excessively, i.e. for too long or at too high a temperature. However, all food, particularly meat and meat products, should be cooked thoroughly to destroy foodborne pathogens.

Once a week, make it a habit to throw out perishable foods that should no longer be eaten.

Majority of tal mushroom poisoning occurs due to ingestion of Amanita Phalloides the death cap, due to its high content of Amatoxin a potent cytotoxin. One mushroom contains enough poison to kill an adult. Cooking or peeling does not inactivate the toxin, and all parts are poisonous. Onset of symptoms occurs hours or more after ingestion of mushrooms. Fatal poisoning is usually associated with delayed onset of symptoms which are very severe, with toxic effect on liver, kidney and nervous system. For absolute safety avoid any wild mushrooms, unless definitely identified as nonpoisonous.

Acrylamide is a chemical which is found in certain foods that have been cooked and processed at high temperatures, and the levels of acrylamide increase with the time of heating. Of the limited range and number of foods analysed to date, acrylamide levels are highest in potato and cerealbased products subjected to heat processing such as frying, grilling or baking. However, the mechanisms of formation of acrylamide in food are poorly understood.

Bacteria and fungi may grow inside the refrigerator if dryness and cleanliness are not maintained. Spoilage bacteria are a major concern as they cause foods to deteriorate and develop unpleasant odors, tastes, and ures. Spoilage bacteria can grow at low temperatures and eventually they cause food to develop off or bad tastes and smells, compromising quality and wholesomeness of food. Pathogenic bacteria do not generally affect the taste, smell, or appearance of a food, but there is a chance of crosscontamination if raw and cooked foods are kept together. Some pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes thrive at cold temperatures and, if present, will multiply in the refrigerator over time and could cause illness.

. What can be done in the kitchen to reduce dietary intake of pesticides?

. Why milk or juice produced in a tetra pack can be kept without refrigeration?

High density polyethylene HDPE is used to make milk, water, and juice bottles, yogurt and margarine tubs and grocery, trash, and retail bags. Highdensity polyethylene is stiff and strong but is not heat sle i.e. it melts at a relatively low temperature. Not known to leach any chemicals that are suspected of causing cancer or disrupting hormones and it can be recycled.

. What is food contamination and what may be potential causes of contamination?

The information available on acrylamide so r reinforces general advice on healthy eating. Bread should be toasted to the lightest colour acceple.

Keep the door closed as much as possible to maintain internal temperature safe. Food within be safe as long as power is out no more than hours without opening the doors. Discard any perishable food such as meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and leftovers that has been above C for over hours. Always discard any items in the refrigerator that have come into contact with raw meat juices.

Remove outer leaves of leafy vegeles, such as cauliflower, cabbage.

. How to get rid of strong food odors inside refrigerator due to food spoilage?

. What precautions should be taken while using microwave oven?

It is always a good idea to rotate canned or packaged foods, and to put dates on packages so that one can know how old the items are.

The milk, fruit juice or cream is pasteurized at a higher temperature C., but for a shorter time which is known as ultrahigh temperature UHT food processing. The UHT milk or juice passes through heating and cooling stages in quick succession, then, is immediately put into a sterile Tetra pack shelfsafe carton. The end result is a product that lasts up to six months without refrigeration or preservatives. Tetra pack products are sterile and safe to consume until theyre opened. After opening it should be stored in the refrigerator. These products are labelled as ultrapasteurized.

Cut the meat open with a clean knife to check it is piping hot all the way through it should be steaming.

Take out all removable parts and wash with mild soap and water.

FortificationAddition of one or more nutrients to a food to make it richer than the unprocessed food, e.g. Vitamin C added to fruit juice.

Foodborne and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases kill an estimated million people worldwide annually, including many children.

If odor persists, let set two to three days, changing vinegar every eight hours.

Some examples of artificial colourants are as follows;

Make sure there is no pink meat left. Meat changes colour when it is cooked.

Most of natural toxins found in fish are produced by species of naturally occurring marine algae. They accumulate in fish when they feed on the algae or on other fish that have fed on the algae. Ciguatera fish poisoning is characterized by numbness and tingling of the lips and tongue, vomiting, diarrhea and is associated with consumption of toxincontaminated subtropical and tropical reef fish. Unfortunately these toxins are not destroyed by normal cooking or processing.

Stir, rotate, or turn food upside down where possible midway through the microwaving time to even the cooking and eliminate cold spots where harmful bacteria can survive. Even if the microwave oven has a turnle, it is still helpful to stir and turn food top to bottom.

When certain diseasecausing bacteria or pathogens contaminate food, they can cause foodborne illness, often called food poisoning. Foods that are contaminated may not look, taste or smell any different from foods that are safe to eat. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria and Escherichia coli E. coli are common bacteria causing foodborne illness. Some foodborne illnesses are mild where most people get better within a few days, but illness can sometimes be more severe, even deadly. Bacillus cereus can form heat resistant spores and a heat resistant toxin in cooked rice left at room temperature. Reheating or lightly cooking the food will not destroy this toxin.

Water is essential in food preparation. It is used to wash food before cooking, it is used to act as a cooking medium, it is used to clean containers of food before and after preparation and it is also used as the most important beverage. Therefore, it is important that all water meant for drinking and cooking purposes should be free from pathogenic bacteria. Water free from pathogenic bacteria and palale is known as pole water. Water used for ice must also be pole. The ice may be used to cool foods or added to cold drinks. It is important to ensure that the ice for cold food storage or for drinks be made from pole water.

A food recall is defined as an action taken to remove foods which may pose a safety risk from the sale, distribution or consumption to consumers. In other words, it is the action to remove food from the market at any stage of the food chain, including that possessed by consumers. The term withdrawal is used widely in relation to food recall. Food recall is a fundamental tool in the management of risks in response to food safety events and emergencies.

Food safety refers to limiting the presence of those hazards whether chronic or acute, that may make food injurious to the health of the consumer. Food safety is about producing, handling, storing and preparing food in such a way as to prevent infection and contamination in the food production chain, and to help ensure that food quality and wholesomeness are maintained to promote good health.

Food fortification has been defined as the addition of one or more essential nutrients to a food, whether or not it is normally contained in the food, for the purpose of preventing or correcting a demonstrated deficiency of one or more nutrients in the population or specific population groups. Food fortification has the advantage of being able to deliver nutrients to large segments of the population without requiring radical changes in food consumption patterns.

It is widely known that pesticides / insecticides and herbicides / fungicides are used for pest and weed / spoilage control. These agrochemicals are available over the counter; rmers may use them without proper understanding or supervision. These chemicals can be hazardous, and there is always a chance of contamination of agriculture produce with residues of these chemicals. Considering the possible health hazard of dietary intake of residues of these chemicals, the Joint FAO/WHO Meetings on Pesticide Residues provides independent scientific expert advice on pesticide residues, residual limits and the acceple maximum dietary intake ADI and maximum residual limit MRL on the basis of evidencebased information and risk assessment.

. What kinds of toxin are present in wild mushrooms and what precautions should be taken?

It has been found that formalin solution has been used by some fish handlers for preservation which may give a special smell; the use of formalin to preserve food is illegal because it is a potent poison, and fish preserved with formalin is not fit for consumption.

Fever and/or the presence of blood or mucus in the stool are signs of bacterial infection that may require a medical consultation.

Food additives are substances not normally consumed as a food by itself and are not normally used as a typical ingredient of the food, whether or not it has nutritive value. In many cases, the intentional addition certain additives to food is for a technological purpose including organoleptic in the manucturing process, and may be added during the preparation, treatment, packing, packaging, transport or holding of such food. The term does not include contaminants, or substances added to food for maintaining or improving nutritional qualities, or sodium chloride. Adequate information shall be given about the manner in which the food additive is to be kept and is to be used in food.

Dont open refrigerator/freezer doors more often than necessary, as temperatures rise when the refrigerator doors open. Close doors as soon as possible to save energy and keep safe temperatures.

Only use cookware that is specially manuctured for use in the microwave oven. Only use products that have been clearly labelled as safe to use in a microwave, whether made from glass or ceramic pottery. Many plastics are not safe in microwaves, where they can melt, form cracks that can cause food leakage, or dissolve, so be extra careful. Most metals, including metal paints on ceramics or glass, are usually not safe either because of the increased risk for sparks and fire.

The underlying principle of all preservation techniques, whether carried out in the home or commercially, is to restrict food spoilage so that food can be used safely in a palale form at a later time. Food preservation should inhibit the growth of harmful microorganisms and arrest the biochemical breakdown of tissues and the transformation of its cell contents. This is achieved by heat, cold, drying, fermentation, radiation and chemicals. The use of ice or snow to preserve foods was known to early man. Fermentation of agricultural produce also was known from early times and it is still practised for preservation of vegeles such as kimchi, sinki, gundruk and pickles. Other popular domestic methods used for food preservation were smoking, drying and salting. Smoking of meat and fish for preservation and flavouring is an old practice.

Careful sampling of the food is necessary for sensory evaluation. It is not always possible to detect with sensory methods alone the contamination of food by pesticides, veterinary drug residues and adulteration. Objective evaluation is done which includes chemical, physiochemical, microbial and physical methods of analysis. Chemical methods include the determination of nutritive value of foods before and after cooking, and to detect the products of decomposition and adulterants in foods. The most widely employed objective evaluation is the measurement of physical properties by the use of instruments. Measurements of the appearance and volume of foods are also important.

ContaminantAny substance not intentionally added to food, which is present in such food as a result of the production including operations carried out in crop husbandry, animal husbandry and veterinary medicine, manucture, processing, preparation, treatment, packing, packaging, transport or holding of such food or as a result of environmental contamination.

. What is food labelling and why it is important?

. What precautions should be taken while buying vegeles and fruits?

Use the correct of plastic for the role, e.g. only use microwavesafe plastics in the microwave.

. What kinds of chemicals are commonly used as colourants or preservatives in fish and what are the associated health risks?

Prepackaged food must be properly labelled for legal, technical and administrative reasons. Food labelling is any written, printed or graphic matter that is present on the label, accompanies the food, or is ed near the food, including that for the purpose of promoting its sale or disposal. Prepackaged food shall not be described or presented on any label or in any labelling in a manner that is lse, misleading or deceptive. The following information should appear on the label of prepackaged foods as applicable to the food being labelled which could be different in each country depending on their national food control system and the existing legislation;

. What can I do to protect myself from foodborne illness?

Ensuring food safety starts with production, at the rm level. In this regard, misuse of agrochemicals, including pesticides, growth hormones and veterinary drugs may have harmful effects on human health. The microbial and chemical risks could be introduced at the rmlevel e.g. using water contaminated by industrial waste or poultry rm waste for irrigation of crops. Good agricultural practices should be applied to reduce microbial and chemical hazards. Organic rming without the use of pesticides has been promoted in many countries of the SouthEast Asia Region, as there is a significant segment of healthconscious people. particularly in urban settings. Although organic products are expensive as compared to commonly available food items, there is a tendency among health conscious consumers to eat less, but buy organic foods.

Pasteurizationthe process of killing harmful organisms in a food product by heating at controlled temperatures below C, commonly applied to milk.

Organic and locally produced foods may have environmental benefits such as using less pesticides or fertilizers. These foods, like others, can be exposed to harmful bacteria during the growing and harvesting process. It is important for rmers and distributors to use good sanitary practices to minimize food contamination. Consumers should always prepare and cook food properly, no matter where it is from.

Lowdensity polyethylene LDPE is used to make films of various sorts, some bread and frozen food bags and squeezable bottles. Lowdensity polyethylene is relatively transparent. Many of the films are not heat sle either and may melt to the food if touching.

toxicological assessment of the pesticide and its residue

. What are acceple daily intake ADI and maximum residual limit MRL?

Some examples of food adulteration are as follows;

Crosscontamination is the transfer of harmful microorganisms from one item of food to another via a nonfood suce such as human hands, equipment, or utensils. It may also be a direct transfer from a raw to a cooked food item. Contaminated water may be potential source of food contamination.

. What are clinical symptoms of foodborne illness?

Quality includes positive and negative attributes that influence a products value to the consumer. Positive attributes that demonstrate good quality may be the origin, colour, flavour, ure and processing method of the food, while negative attributes may be visible spoilage, contamination with filth, discolouration, or bad odours or tastes. However not all unsafe foods may demonstrate bad quality, that is, unsafe food may appear to be of good quality, such as tainted meat disguised using bleach or strong spices. This distinction between safety and quality has implications for public policy and influences the nature and content of the food control system most suited to meet predetermined national objectives.

More information on safe food handling can be obtained from following websites;

It is important to cook all meat properly to kill the bacteria that can cause foodborne illness. Temperature and cooking times will vary depending on the of cut of meat and the method of cooking.

. What is food preservation and which are common methods of preservation?

AdulterationThe process by which the quality or the nature of a given substance is reduced through i the addition of a foreign or an inferior substance, and ii the removal of vital element. Adulteration of food may endanger health if the physiological functions of the consumer are affected.

Thoroughly rinse and scrub fruits and vegeles. Peel them if appropriate.

In addition, polystyrene PS and polyvinyl chloride PVC are also used during food material transportation and handling in supermarkets. Modern food safe plastic bags are plasticizerfree and will not release harmful chemicals into your food while it is being cooked.

Thoroughly wash raw fruits and vegeles with tap water.

FermentationBreakdown of compounds without the use of oxygen, e.g. breakdown of sugar by yeast to form alcohol and carbon dioxide.

Naturally occurring cyanogenic glycosides are found in raw or unprocessed cassava Manihot esculenta, which can cause nerve damage or death if consumed in quantity. To avoid exposure to these toxins, Cassava should be properly prepared before eating. Peel and slice the cassava and then cook it thoroughly, either by baking, boiling or roasting.

Withholding periodthe time interval after the withdrawal of a drug from the treatment of an animal before the animal or its products can be used for human food.

Food contaminants are any substances not intentionally added to food, which are present in such food as a result of the production including operations carried out in crop rming, animal husbandry and aquaculture, manucture, processing, preparation, treatment, packing, packaging, transport or holding of such food or as a result of environmental contamination. Food contamination refers to the presence of harmful chemicals or microorganisms in food, which can cause several debilitating illnesses if consumed. The unintentional contamination may occur during production, processing, storage and marketing. Edible oil may be contaminated during processing due to leakage of mineral oil in production line.

. How many times may cooking oil can be reused for frying and what is the health hazard of reuse of cooked oil?

Some foods contain toxins in their raw form that are made less toxic once cooked. Red kidney beans can contain high dose of lectin which is toxic when consumed in raw form. As few as four or five raw beans can cause severe stomach ache, vomiting and diarrhoea. Therefore red beans must be well cooked or boiled briskly in fresh water for at least minutes to destroy toxins. Similarly, the castor bean lectin ricin is notorious for causing deaths of children when consumed in raw state.

. How is the food recall system supported internationally?

review of residue data from supervised trials and supervised uses including those reflecting national food agricultural practices. Data from supervised trials conducted at the highest nationally recommended, authorized, or registered uses are included in the review. In order to accommodate variations in national pest control requirements,

Solanine, a glycoalkaloid found in high greatest concentration in budding or green areas of the potato, is acutely toxic to humans. Glycoalkaloids are not destroyed by cooking, so it is important to avoid eating the sprouts and to remove any green or damaged parts before cooking. Cucumber may occasionally contain a group of natural toxins known as cucurbitacins. These toxins give cucumber a bitter taste.

. What is pasteurization and how long we can keep pasteurized milk?

Polypropylene PP is more heat resistant, harder, denser and more transparent than polyethylene so is used for heatresistant microwavable packaging and sauce or salad dressing bottles.

Plastic packaging plays a significant role in the shelf life and ease of storage and cooking for many foods and most are safe to use provided that they are used appropriately. Some kinds of plastics materials which are widely used for handling and storage of food and water are as follows

Fill a large shallow container with vinegar. Set in refrigerator or freezer several hours.

ADI and MRLs are also determined for veterinary drug residues and antimicrobial substances as these chemicals are used for growth promotion and animal disease prevention and control.

Clean the vessel in which cooking is performed between uses.

Removal of microorganisms and enzymes in which most of the microorganisms present in the food are killed and enzymes are inactivated, e.g. in canning, cooking, irradiation, blanching etc. Heating food to high temperatures help preserve them through coagulation of proteins, inactivation of their meolic enzymes and destruction of microorganisms. Hight foods do not store well in the frozen state. Oily fish are the most suile for canning. Canning retains the natural flavour of the fish. Botulinum spores are not always killed by the high heat of the canning process, but the poison that these bacteria make does not occur in acidic conditions. Therefore, canning or pickling of vegeles or meat in airtight containers where possible should contain enough acid to prevent toxin formation. Cans that appear to have swelled or bulged, or unopened jars with pressure pop up centres that have popped up should not be consumed and should be thrown away.

Microwaves cause water, t, and sugar molecules to vibrate . million times per second, producing heat. After the oven is off or food is removed from the oven, the molecules continue to generate heat as they come to a standstill. This additional cooking after microwaving stops is called carryover cooking time, resting time, or standing time. It occurs for a longer time in dense foods such as a whole chicken roast than in lessdense foods like breads, small vegeles and fruits. During this time, the temperature of a food can increase several degrees. Additionally, microwave heating is often uneven with focal spots of intense heat may be near areas of cool especially if originally frozen, so standing time allows for more even heat dispersion. For that reason, directions usually advise to let a food rest for a few minutes after turning off the oven or removing food from the oven.

Keep clean hands, kitchen and chopping board all the time.

. What are the ways to reduce human exposure to dioxin?

Proper food handling can prevent most foodborne illness and diseases. Follow WHOs five keys to safer food;

Checking the best before and useby date labels on foods is one of the first things consumers should do before buying. It is important in countries of the SouthEast Asia Region where food safety law enforcement is weak and consumers understanding of food safety issues is limited. It is a common practice for super markets to reduce prices of food items that will soon reach their usebydate so special attention should be paid before purchasing such items to avoid purchasing food that may not be consumed before the expiration date.

. What kind of microbes grow inside refrigerator and how to prevent microbial growth?

. Why should I keep raw food separate from cooked food?

HAP, or the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system, is a process control system that identifies where hazards might occur in the food production process and puts into place stringent actions to prevent the hazards from occurring. By strictly monitoring and controlling each step of the process, there is less chance for hazards to occur. HAP is an integral part of modern food industry used to identify and control major food risks, such as microbiological, chemical and physical contaminants. Consumers can implement HAPlike practices in the home by following proper storage, handling, cooking and cleaning procedures. The introduction of preventive approaches such as HAP, have resulted in industry taking greater responsibility for and control of food safety risks. Such an integrated approach cilitates improved consumer protection, effectively stimulates agriculture and the food processing industry, and promotes domestic and international food trade.

The rapidly changing lifes and increasing reliance on more highly processed foods has been used to justify the addition of nutrients to an expanding range of foods in order to ensure nutritional adequacy of the diet. Fortification of food with micronutrients is a valid technology for reducing micronutrient malnutrition as part of a foodbased approach when and where existing food supplies and limited access il to provide adequate levels of the respective nutrients in the diet. Food technology has been developed for fortification of vitamins and micronutrients in cereals and cereal based products, milk and milk products, ts and oils.Food Safety What you shoulhealth and safety organizationd know

health and safety organizationECRI Institute

Data BIG and Small What Healthcare Decision Makers are Using Now

We feel very confident presenting ECRIs objective, sciencebased data to our physicians and executive leadership to inform the decision process.

ECRI Institutes April th Webinar Demystifies New CMS Rules for Equipment Maintenance

Complying without Crying How the New CMS Requirements Impact Your Equipment Maintenance Processes

Fornearly years, ECRI Institute, a nonprofit organization, has been dedicated to bringing the discipline of applied scientific research to discover which medical procedures, devices, drugs, and processes are best, all to enable you to improve patient care.

ECRI Institutes technical and market analyses provide our knowledgebase when sitting down with physicians and clinicians to discuss requested equipment.

Covering technology, operations, care delivery, and cilities/construction

Live chat with an ECRI Representative Available Monday through Friday

Alerts Tracker has been a savior for us. Its a smart system and well worth the investment in time saved by our staff who coordinate and utilize this efficient alerts management system.

ECRI Institute and Data Leverage Group Collaborate to Streamline Healthcare Value Analysis

ECRI Institute has been a significant resource in partnering with us to optimize costs associated with medical supplies and equipment.

ECRI Institute Purchased Services ProgramSupply Chain is Not Just About Products Anymore

ECRI Institute Sheds Unbiased Light on New Healthcare Innovations for

ECRI Institute Provides New Answers for Hospitals Coping with Critical IVFluid Minibag Shortage

Disaster Preparedness and Recovery Resource Center

Medical Device Accident Investigation Getting it Right can Save Lives

Stryker Neptune Waste Management System Recall What Now?

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ECRI Institute PSO Releases Health IT Hazard Reporting System

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ECRI Institute identified over , savings for one of my surgery centers and supported materials management with precise detail, system training and negotiation tips.

Virginia Patient Safety Organization Selects ECRI Institute PSO to Analyze Adverse Events, Improve Culture of Safety

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Important patient safety, risk, and health technology management issues

See whats on the one watch list worth watching

TruVu allows us to predict the total cost of ownership of equipment, including installation, service, staffing, cybersecurity,and upgrades.

Achieve Immediate Savings on Supplies, Implants, and Capital Equipment

System Director, Procurement Strategic Sourcing, Greenville Health System

ECRI Institutes Methodology Boot Camp Offers Practical Strategies for Evidencebased Decision Making

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ECRI Institute Convenes Health IT Safety Workshop at HIMSS

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Evidencebased service guides coverage and utilization decisions

ECRI Institutes clearly articulated guidance on this issue was critical to the development of our new policy.

ECRI Institute Releases Top Health Technology Hazards Report for

Risk Management Basics is a very useful course that should be attended by all quality officers or risk managers, as well as hospital administrators. It helped in creating risk management policies and plans in my hospital.

American Society Healthcare Risk Management Conference and Exhibition

Join more than , healthcare organizations worldwide who deliver safer and more costeffective patient care because they rely on ECRI Institutes independent, evidencebased research and informed judgment.

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Ambulatory surgery centers see savings of and more with PriceGuide

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Internationahealth and safety organizationl Labour Standards on Occupational Safety and Health

Occupational Safety and Health Dock Work Convention, No.

General Survey on Occupational Safety and Health

The benefits of International Labour Standards

Transport including civil aviation; railways; road transport

to achieve widespread ratification and effective implementation of the occupational safety and health instruments Convention No. , its Protocol and Convention No.

Promotional Framework for Occupational Safety and Health Convention, No.

The ILO Constitution sets forth the principle that workers should be protected from sickness, disease and injury arising from their employment. Yet for millions of workers the reality is very different. The ILO estimates that . million people die each year from workrelated accidents or diseases. A further million people suffer from workrelated diseases, and there are an estimated million tal and nontal workrelated accidents per year. The suffering caused by such accidents and illnesses to workers and their milies is incalculable. In economic terms, the ILO has estimated that of the worlds annual P is lost as a consequence of occupational diseases and accidents. Employers ce costly early retirements, loss of skilled staff, absenteeism, and high insurance premiums due to workrelated accidents and diseases. Yet many of these tragedies are prevenle through the implementation of sound prevention, reporting and inspection practices. ILO standards on occupational safety and health provide essential tools for governments, employers, and workers to eslish such practices and to provide for maximum safety at work. In the ILO adopted anglobal strategy to improve occupational safety and healthwhich included the introduction of a preventive safety and health culture, the promotion and development of relevant instruments, and technical assistance.

A guide to the Occupational Safety and Health Convention, No. , its Protocol and the Promotional Framework for Occupational Safety and Health Convention, No.

Health and safety in particular branches of economic activity

This instrument has the objective of preserving the health and welre of workers employed in trading eslishments, and eslishments, institutions and administrative services in which workers are mainly engaged in office work and other related services through elementary hygiene measures responding to the requirements of welre at the workplace.

Labour Administration, Labour Inspection and Occupational Safety and Health Branch LABADMIN/OSH

Radiation Protection Convention, No.

Working Environment Air Pollution, Noise and Vibration Convention, No.

The convention provides for detailed technical preventive and protective measures having due regard for the specific requirements of this sector. These measures relate to safety of workplaces, machines and equipment used, work at s and work executed in compressed air.

The convention provides for the adoption of a coherent national occupational safety and health policy, as well as action to be taken by governments and within enterprises to promote occupational safety and health and to improve working conditions. This policy shall be developed by taking into consideration national conditions and practice. The Protocol calls for the eslishment and the periodic review of requirements and procedures for the recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases, and for the publication of related annual statistics.

Conference Committee on the Application of Standards

This convention provides for the eslishment of enterpriselevel occupational health services which are entrusted with essentially preventive functions and which are responsible for advising the employer, the workers and their representatives in the enterprise on maintaining a safe and healthy working environment.

Safety and Health in Agriculture Convention, No.

The convention has the objective of preventing accidents and injury to health arising out of, linked with, or occurring in the course of agricultural and forestry work. To this end, the Convention includes measures relating to machinery safety and ergonomics, handling and transport of materials, sound management of chemicals, animal handling, protection against biological risks, and welre and accommodation cilities.

ILO standardsrelated activities in the area of occupational safety and health

Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations

Subjects covered by International Labour Standards

This instrument aims at the eslishment of a mechanism for the creation of a policy to prevent the risks of occupational cancer caused by exposure, generally over a prolonged period, to chemical and physical agents of various s present in the workplace. For this purpose, states are obliged to determine periodically carcinogenic substances and agents to which occupational exposure shall be prohibited or regulated, to make every effort to replace these substances and agents by non or less carcinogenic ones, to prescribe protective and supervisory measures as well as to prescribe the necessary medical examinations of workers exposed.

International Labour Organization ILO

The convention provides that, as r as possible, the working environment shall be kept free from any hazards due to air pollution, noise or vibration. To achieve this, technical measures shall be applied to enterprises or processes, and where this is not possible, supplementary measures regarding the organization of work shall be taken instead.

General Survey on Safety in the Working Environment

International Labour Standards on Occupational Safety and Health

How International Labour Standards are created

Safety and Health in Mines Convention, No.

Building a preventative safety and health culture

ILOCodes of Practiceset out practical guidelines for public authorities, employers, workers, enterprises, and specialized occupational safety and health protection bodies such as enterprise safety committees. They are not legally binding instruments and are not intended to replace the provisions of national laws or regulations, or accepted standards. Codes of Practice provide guidance on safety and health at work in certain economic sectors e.g. construction, opencast mines, coal mines, iron and steel industries, nonferrous metals industries, agriculture, shipbuilding and ship repairing, forestry, on protecting workers against certain hazards e.g. radiation, lasers, visual units, chemicals, asbestos, airborne substances, and on certain safety and health measures e.g. occupational safety and health management systems; ethical guidelines for workers health surveillance; recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases; protection of workers personal data; safety, health and working conditions in the transfer of technology to developing countries.

This Convention aims at promoting a preventative safety and health culture and progressively achieving a safe and healthy working environment. It requires ratifying States to develop, in consultation with the most representative organizations of employers and workers, a national policy, national system, and national programme on occupational safety and health. The national policy shall be developed in accordance with the principles of Article of theOccupational Safety and Health Convention, No. , and the national systems and programmes shall be developed taking into account the principles set out in relevant ILO instruments. A list of relevant instruments is contained in the Annex to the Promotional Framework forOccupational Safety and Health Recommendation, No. . National systems shall provide the infrastructure for implementing national policy and programmes on occupational safety and health, such as laws and regulations, authorities or bodies, compliance mechanisms including systems of inspection, and arrangements at the level of the undertaking. National programmes shall include timebound measures to promote occupational safety and health, enabling a measuring of progress.

The ILO has adopted more than standards specifically dealing with occupational safety and health, as well as over Codes of Practice. Nearly half of ILO instruments deal directly or indirectly with occupational safety and health issues.

The objective of the Convention is to set out basic requirements with a view to protect workers against the risks associated with exposure to ionising radiations. Protective measures to be taken include the limitation of workers exposure to ionising radiations to the lowest practicable level following the technical knowledge available at the time, avoiding any unnecessary exposure, as well as the monitoring of the workplace and of the workers health. The Convention further refers to requirements with regard to emergency situations that may arise.

International Labour Standards on Employment promotion

Applying and promoting International Labour Standards

This instrument regulates the various aspects of safety and health characteristic for work in mines, including inspection, special working devices, and special protective equipment of workers. It also prescribes requirements relating to mine rescue.

ILO is a specialized agency of theUnited Nations

Occupational Cancer Convention, No.

Aims at preventing the harmful effects of exposure to asbestos on the health of workers by indicating reasonable and practicable methods and techniques of reducing occupational exposure to asbestos to a minimum. With a view to achieving this objective, the convention enumerates various detailed measures, which are based essentially on the prevention and control of health hazards due to occupational exposure to asbestos, and the protection of workers against these hazards.

Subjects covered by International Labour Standards

Introduction to International Labour Standards

General Survey on the occupational safety and health instruments concerning the promotional framework, construction, mines and agriculture

The Convention provides for the adoption and implementation of a coherent policy on safety in the use of chemicals at work, which includes the production, the handling, the storage, and the transport of chemicals as well as the disposal and treatment of waste chemicals, the release of chemicals resulting from work activities, and the maintenance, repair and cleaning of equipment and containers of chemicals. In addition, it allocates specific responsibilities to suppliers and exporting states.

An indepth study for discussion with a view to the elaboration of a plan of action for such activities Report VI, International Labour Conference, st Session, [pdf]