Food Safety What you shoulhealth and safety organizationd know

Remove food from its packaging before defrosting. Do not use foam trays and plastic wraps because they are not heat sle at high temperatures; melting or warping of the trays or wraps from the heat of the food may cause harmful chemicals to leach in. Many microwaves have special settings for defrosting. During microwave defrosting, rotate and turn food upside down periodically times during defrosting. Microwaves are absorbed preferentially by water rather than ice, and by the first layer that can absorb the radiation, so turning/stirring the food during the defrosting process improves the evenness of the heat.

Oil is an often essential part of cooking and it is usually added during the first step of cooking. It is desirable to pour some oil into the pan at the beginning rather than later when the pan is very hot. Though using a fresh batch of oil every time is good, it is not always practical and people may tend to reuse it several times.

Most s of foodborne illness cause one or more of the following signs and symptoms

A food recall may be initiated as a result of a report or complaint from a variety of sources manucturers, wholesalers, retailers, government agencies and consumers. Recalls are conducted by food businesses to ensure that potentially hazardous or unsafe foods are not consumed. Microbiological contamination is primary cause of food recall but it may also be due to chemical or radionuclear contamination of food. It is mandatory for consumer protection in industrialized countries where food labelling is compulsory for prepackaged food and commonly practised by multinational food industries.

Chicken is well cooked if the meat is white and there is no pink flesh. Fish is done when it is opaque and flakes easily with a fork.

Ensuring food safety requires due attention during harvest, transport, processing, storage and finally during food preparation and storage by consumers. Processed, frozen or readytoeat food is gaining popularity in recent years due to changing food habits, product ersification, busy life and mass production practices. In urban settings, there is a growing tendency to buy meat, milk and vegeles on the weekend and store these items in the freezer or refrigerator. Microwave ovens are often used for reheating of food. However, while using a refrigerator and microwave are part of daily life in urban settings, most users and food handlers rarely have a chance to learn how to safely store and reheat food. We have, therefore, developed a collection of questions and answers on food safety, considering this knowledge gap among consumers and food handlers, with a specific focus on concerns of regional importance. These questions and answers include topics such as food adulteration and lsification food fraud, unhealthy and unsafe foodhandling practices in food markets and at home, and food allergies.

The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement.

Food odors may develop as a result of food spoilage, which may be associated with power ilure, overloading of refrigerator with food items, or poor hygiene. Strong food odors are frequent after power outages. The following action should be taken to get rid of unpleasant, undesirable food odors;

. Which mycotoxins are concerns from a food safety point of view?

Leave a corner of the dish uncovered to allow the steam to escape. This reduces the risk of the film being blown off and settling on to the food.

Acceple daily intake ADI of a chemical is the daily intake which, during an entire lifetime, appears to be without appreciable risk to the health of the consumer on the basis of all the known cts at the time of the evaluation of the chemical by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues JMPR. It is expressed in milligrams of the chemical per kilogram of body weight.

Pole waterWater which is free from pathogenic bacteria and is palale.

Do not let cling film touch the food during microwave cooking as it melts at a low temperature. In many cases, the film should be removed before cooking in a microwave.

Keep food suces clean. Wash all utensils, plates, platters, and cutlery as soon as used.

. How to avoid adverse effect of acrylamides?

A single foodborne bacterium can grow into more than two million bacteria in just seven hours under the right conditions.

All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use.

Throw back the big fish as the little ones have less time to take up and concentrate pesticides and other harmful residues.

Food safety is everybodys concern, and it is difficult to find anyone who has not encountered an unpleasant moment of foodborne illness at least once in the past year. Foodborne illnesses may result from the consumption of food contaminated by microbial pathogens, toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. Food allergy is another emerging problem. While many foodborne diseases may be selflimiting, some can be very serious and even result in death. Ensuring food safety is becoming increasingly important in the con of changing food habits, popularization of mass catering eslishments and the globalization of our food supply. As our food supply becomes increasingly globalized, the need to strengthen food safety systems in and between all countries is becoming more and more evident. That is why WHO is promoting efforts to improve food safety, from rm to plate and everywhere in between on World Health Day, April . The World Health Day slogan is From rm to plate, make food safe.

Prevention or reduction of human exposure is best done via sourcedirected measures, i.e. strict control of industrial processes to reduce formation of dioxins. Many national authorities have programmes in place to monitor the food supply. This monitoring has led to early detection of contamination and has often prevented impact on a larger scale.

It is difficult to for a consumer to determine whether vegeles or fruits contain pesticide residues as often they do not have any noticeable smell, taste or visual defect. The following precautions can be taken to reduce dietary exposure to pesticide residue if agricultural products are sold in common market;

. What should be done in case of a power cut to a refrigerator for a long time?

Food poisoning from the consumption of poisonous wild mushrooms has been reported frequently during monsoon season in countries of South and SouthEast Asia. In some episodes, the whole milies lost their life due to consumption of poisonous wild mushrooms. Many toxic mushrooms are quite similar in appearance to their less toxic cousins, so often easy to mistake

Refrigerators should be kept clean and dry all the time. The following tips will help to ensure food safety, wholesomeness and quality of food materials;

. What is useby date in the food label and why is it important for a consumer?

Reheat all leftovers until they are steaming hot.

Do not overstock your refrigerator. Overfilling will reduce the circulation of cool air and make difficult the proper cooling or chilling of food materials and beverages.

. Many people taste raw food during the cooking process?

When you pierce the thickest part of the meat with a fork or skewer, the juices should run clear.

Cover foods or wrap leafy vegeles with to retain moisture and prevent them from picking up odors from other foods.

Traditionally, qualities of foods are evaluated by our sensory organs our eyes, nose or mouth or, more recently, by the use of instruments. Sensory evaluation is commonly practised by food regulatory authorities which consists of judging the quality of food by a panel of judges. The evaluation deals with measuring, evaluating, analyzing and interpreting the qualities of food as they are perceived by the senses of sight, taste, touch and hearing.

Many people have an impression that microwave ovens are used mainly for reheating. However, microwave ovens may be used for reheating, cooking and defrosting.

Cooking whole, stuffed poultry in a microwave oven is not recommended. Because food in a microwave oven can cook ster on the outside than food on the inside, the stuffing might not have enough time to reach the temperature needed to destroy harmful bacteria.

Fresh fish has firm flesh, a stiff body and tight scales. If you press the body, no indentation should be left. Select fresh fish, which have red gills and bright eyes. Be sure to purchase fish which have been refrigerated or stored on ice and are not slippery or slimy to touch.

. What are food additives and why are they added?

Food contamination is an even bigger threat in countries of the SouthEast Asia region due to the lack of produce harvesting norms, food handling standards, and environmental regulations.

The problem with reusing oil is that it can create free radicals which can cause ailments in the long run. These free radicals can be carcinogenic i.e. can cause cancer and also atherosclerosis which can lead to increase in bad cholesterol levels, blocking the arteries.

Foodborne pathogen called Listeria can survive and sometimes grow on foods being stored in the refrigerator.

This publication does not necessarily represent the decisions or policies of the World Health Organization.

In , the World Health Report, identified iodine, iron, vitamin A and zinc deficiencies as being among the worlds most serious health risk ctors. The control of iodine deficiency disorders through salt iodization, for example, has been a major accomplishment in public health nutrition over the last years. The focus of the international community for promotion of food fortification has so r been on the three most prevalent deficiencies vitamin A, vitamin B complex, iodine and iron.

A large pot of food like soup or stew should be ided into small portions and put in shallow containers before being refrigerated.

Maximum residual limit MRL is the maximum concentration of a pesticide residue expressed as mg/kg, recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to be legally permitted in food commodities and animal feeds. Respective MRLs are intended to be toxicologically acceple. MRLs which are primarily intended to apply in international trade are derived from estimations made by the JMPR following both

Considering the importance of food labelling for international trade, the Codex Alimentarius Commission has made general and commodity standards and recommendations in relation to food labelling. Food labelling is important for protection of consumer interest. Label declaration on packed food is very important for knowing the ingredients and nutritional value, and helps in checking the freshness of the food and bestbefore dates. It provides a clue for food recall or food withdrawal if situation demands.

. What is acrylamide and how it is produced?

Check useby dates and labels while buying packed food.

Altering environmental conditions in which spoilage microorganisms are unable to grow in the food, e.g. in dehydration, pickling, salting, smoking, freezing etc. Such conditions can be created by removal of water, use of acid, use of oil and spices, use of chemical preservatives and use of low temperatures.

There is no time limit on how long unopened cans will be safe. The usual recommendation for canned foods with low acidity such as vegeles and meats is that they will be good for to years. Acidic canned foods such as fruits, fruit juices and tomatoes will usually still be good quality for to years.

. How safe is food when cooked in microwave oven?

The boiling temperature smoke point of cooking oil is above C.

Food adulteration is an unethical and often criminal malpractice which is unfortunately commonplace in countries of the SouthEast Asia region. It frequently occurs where informal food production and marketing services are predominant and enforcement of food regulation is weak. Adulteration of food is normally observed in its most crude form, where prohibited substances are either added or used to partly or wholly substitute healthy ingredients or to artificially create the impression of freshness in old food. Normally, intentionally adulterating food is done for financial gain. Among food items, spices, due to their inherent naturegreat demand and high price become easy substances for gross adulteration. Other forms of adulteration happen due to carelessness and lack in proper hygienic conditions of processing, storage, transportation and marketing. This adulteration ultimately causes the consumer to be either cheated financially or worse as a victim of illness or disease. However, adequate precautions taken by consumers at the time of purchase of such products can allow them to avoid purchasing such adulterated food.

Mycotoxins are a group of naturally occurring chemicals produced by certain moulds or fungi. They can grow on a variety of different crops and foodstuffs including cereals, nuts, spices and dried fruits. Mycotoxins are produced by several fungi in foodstuffs and feed during production, storage, transportation, often under warm and humid conditions.

If reused cooking oil is dark in colour or is greasy/sticky than it is time to change the oil.

Cover the dish with a lid or plastic wrap approved for microwave use. Allow enough space between the food and the top of the dish so that plastic wrap does not touch the food. Loosen or vent the lid or wrap to allow steam to vent. The moist heat that is created will help destroy harmful bacteria and ensure uniform cooking. Cooking bags also provide safe even cooking.

Food preservation is designed to prevent spoilage and decay of seasonal and perishable foods by increasing the shelflife of food thus increasing the supply and availability throughout the year. Technological advancements such as canning, vacuum packing, refrigeration, freezing and tetra packing have increased shelflife of food.

Hepatitis A virus can cause longlasting liver disease and spreads typically through raw or undercooked seafood or contaminated raw produce.

Cook food thoroughly, to the appropriate temperature.

A meat thermometer is used in modern kitchen which measures the internal temperature of cooked meat and poultry, or any other dishes, to assure that a safe temperature has been reached and that harmful bacteria have been destroyed.

. How long can we keep canned or packaged foods?

Polyethylene terephthalate PET is used to make soft drink, water, sports drink, ketchup, and salad dressing bottles, and peanut butter, pickle, jelly and jam jars. It is strong, heat resistant and resistant to gases and acidic foods. It can be transparent or opaque. Not known to leach any chemicals that are suspected of causing cancer or disrupting hormones and it can be recycled.

Polycarbonate is clear, heat resistant and durable and often used to make refillable water bottles and sterilisable baby bottles, microwave ovenware, eating utensils, plastic coating for metal cans. Tiny amounts of bisphenol A are formed when polycarbonate bottles are washed with harsh detergents or bleach e.g., sodium hypochlorite. At high levels of exposure, bisphenol A is potentially hazardous because it mimics the female hormone estrogen.

. Why there is a concern about acrylamides when it is produced naturally during cooking process?

Unsafe food containing harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites or chemical substances, causes more than diseases ranging from diarrhoea to cancers.

Refrigerate cooked food within two hours of preparation

After removing food from the microwave, always allow a standing time of at least minutes. This completes the cooking process.

There are currently no regulatory maximum limits for acrylamide in food. The following principles can be applied to minimize whatever risk exists

PreservativeSubstance added to perishable foods to prevent spoilage by inhibiting growth of microorganisms.

Bacteria will be destroyed during microwave cooking just as in other s of ovens, so food is safe cooked in a microwave oven, as long as it is heated to the necessary temperature generally above C. However the food can cook less evenly than in a conventional oven. In other words, microwave ovens can cook unevenly and leave cold spots where harmful bacteria can survive. To promote uniform cooking, arrange food items evenly in a covered dish and add some liquid if needed.

In a microwave oven, the air in the oven is closer to room temperature so the temperature of the food suce is often cooler than food in a conventional oven where the food is heated by hot air.

Reuse plastic containers that are food compatible, in the way the original food was presented. For example, you can freeze food in icecream containers but dont heat them in the microwave they were designed for use on cold food.

Useby Date also known as the recommended last consumption date or expiration date is the end of the estimated period after which the product probably will not have the quality attributes normally expected by the consumers as long as it is maintained under the stated storage conditions. In order words, the expiration date is the date up to which the food maintains its microbiological and physical sility as well as the nutrient content declared on the label. That means it is important to use the food before the expiry date to get the most nutritional value from it and to be relatively sure the contents are safe.

Sunflower, soybean, mustard and canola oil have a high smoke point i.e. they do not break down at high temperatures and are therefore suile for frying, including deep frying where the food is submerged into the oil. Oils which do not have a high smoke point such as olive oil should only be used for sauting.

Dioxins are a group of chemicallyrelated compounds that are mainly byproducts of industrial processes but can also result from natural processes, such as volcanic eruptions and forest fires. Dioxins are found throughout the world in the environment and they accumulate in the food chain, mainly in the tty tissue of animals and pass to human body through food, mainly meat and dairy products, fish and shellfish. More than of human exposure is through food, mainly meat and dairy products, fish and shellfish. Shortterm exposure of humans to high levels of dioxins may result in skin lesions. Dioxins are highly toxic and can cause reproductive and developmental problems, damage the immune system, interfere with hormones and also cause cancer.

People should eat a balanced and varied diet, which includes plenty of fruit and vegeles, and should moderate their consumption of fried and tty foods.

Street food vendors are a traditional and indigenous st food approaching most countries of the SouthEast Asia Region. Street food vendors provide cheap and enjoyable food to millions of consumers. It is difficult to say how safe street food is as there are many contributing ctors associated with the safety of street food. A survey of street foods in countries, conducted by WHO, revealed the major health threat cing the public comes from raw and undercooked food, infected food handlers and inadequate hygiene measures in processing and storing such food. Since the majority of street food is cooked well and served hot, there is less chance of food poisoning. The water quality, hygienic conditions and the level of cleanliness particularly in the summer seasonmay contribute to episodes of food poisoning. However improvements in physical infrastructure and hygienic conditions are growing as consumers are also demanding quality food.

Most fresh vegeles and fruits retain their freshness for a short time under ideal conditions of storage and it is always better to buy vegeles in the morning or evening hours depending on harvesting pattern. When purchasing, select fresh vegeles and fruits which are firm, crisp, bright in colour, with no visible bruises or signs of decay and wilting. Be careful as some fruits and vegeles may be artificially coloured to give the illusion of freshness and quality. It is advisable to buy vegeles and fruits which are in season, as the quality is usually high and the price is low.

. Are there natural toxins found in food of plant or animal origin? What should be done to get rid of them?

The mycotoxins of most concern from a food safety perspective include the aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, trichothecenes and zearalenone. The aflatoxins are most commonly found in maize, peanuts and feed as contaminants and it can also be found in the milk of animals that are fed contaminated feed, in the form of aflatoxin M. Some mycotoxins such as trichothecene remain toxic even after being cooked.

. How long can food be preserved in refrigerator?

Mycotoxins can cause a variety of adverse health effects in humans. Aflatoxins B are genotoxic and carcinogenic, and can cause liver cancer in humans. Other mycotoxins have a range of other health effects including kidney damage, gastrointestinal disturbances, reproductive disorders or suppression of the immune system.

Never defrost food at room temperature. Defrost frozen food in the refrigerator, cold water or in the microwave.

Pasteurisation is the most popular method of heat treatment. It involves heating milk to high enough temperatures to kill harmful bacteria that can cause illness. Milk is heated to a high temperature and then rapidly cooled so that heat sle and heat labile pathogens are killed. It does not kill all bacteria, some of which, whilst harmless in the quantities present, will cause the milk to spoil after a few days. Therefore, pasteurization alone does not give a safe shelfsle product without proper storage. Pasteurized milk must be kept in refrigerator but it can be kept for longer period in the freezer chamber.

The following measures should be considered to minimize health hazard of reusing oil;

The mention of specific companies or of certain manucturers products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

Keep food at safe temperatures, both for serving and storage.

Food poisoningA general term applied to all stomach and intestinal disturbances due to food contaminated with certain microorganisms or to their toxins.

. What is the best way to thaw frozen food in a microwave oven?

Trim t from meat, poultry and fish; discard oils and ts in broths and drippings.

Requests for publications, or for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution can be obtained from SEARO Library, World Health Organization, Regional Office for SouthEast Asia, Indraprastha Estate, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, New Delhi , India x ; email.

Use safe drinking water for food preparation.

It should be noted that some bacteria like listeria can grow well under refrigerator and crosscontamination can occur if raw and cooked food or salads are open and kept together. Eggs, cake and some food items may absorb flavour from other food items.

All meat should be checked visually to see if it is cooked thoroughly. The following tips should be considered while preparing meat at home;

Cabbage and related vegeles contain thioglucosides which may be absorbed in people with low dietary iodine, and may contribute to thyroid enlargement.

AntibioticsA substance produced by living organisms that inhibits the growth of other organisms, sometimes used as a growth promoter or food preservative in some countries.

All plastic is made from chemicals that have the potential to harm a persons health. Proper use of plastic packaging lowers chemical migration. Following these tips will help to reduce the migration of chemicals from plastic into food;

Make sure the leftover oil from cooking or frying is cooled down and then transferred into an airtight container through a strainer.

BlanchingDipping of fruits or vegeles in boiling water or exposing these to steam for a few minutes to kill enzymatic and biological activity prior to freezing or processing.

. What kinds of plastics are used for food handling and storage and are there any health hazards of using it?

. What are the priority areas for food fortification?

Coliform bacteriaGroup of aerobic bacteria commonly found in eces; their presence indicates lack of sanitation as in insufficiently treated water for drinking.

There is a general belief that food items can be kept in a freezer for an indefinite period. A refrigerator set to below C will protect most foods but not forever. Over time, even chilled foods will spoil. The cool temperatures slow down bacterial growth but they dont stop the growth completely.

Follow recommendations for cleaning products to be used on containers, bottles and lids.

The informal food production and marketing system is still strong in most countries of the SouthEast Asia Region, which presents challenges for enforcement of food safety regulations. As a result, instances of food adulteration and contamination can occur. Traditionally, societal preferences call for hot and wellcooked food, and even milk is boiled pasteurized. These habits are partially responsible for preventing foodborne infections. Street food is popular in urban settings in many countries. Hygienic conditions are improving, provided that pole water supply and clean cilities are ensured by municipal authorities. The introduction of bottled drinking water and its popularity in urban areas has contributed to prevent waterborne and diarrhoeal diseases in countries with inconsistent water treatment. Political awareness and consumer education on food safety will help strengthen enforcement of food standards, improve hygienic practices, and prevent foodborne illnesses. The WHO Five keys to safer food serve as the basis for educational programmes to train food handlers and educate the consumers. They are especially important in preventing foodborne illness. The Five keys are as follows.

. What are food safety issues related to seafood and fish?

. What precautions should be taken to ensure food safety while using refrigerator or freezer?

Seafood and fish can become contaminated with pathogens such as Vibrio cholera, Salmonella, E. coli, Shigella, Listeria due to human activity or poor hygiene and sanitation during food production and processing. There have been outbreaks of foodborne illnesses and infections linked to consumption of contaminated fish and seafood. In addition, Methyl mercury is formed by bacterial action in an aquatic environment from dumping of industrial mercury as well as natural sources of elemental mercury. Testing of fish against methyl mercury is demanded by most importing countries. Certain parasite larvae can be present in fish, which is why most fish should be cooked thoroughly.

Raw meat, poultry, and seafood should be in sealed containers or wrapped securely to prevent raw juices from contaminating other foods.

Thoroughly cook all meat, poultry and seafood, especially shellfish.

Foods and the ingredients in food products are increasingly grown, processed and consumed in different locations around the globe. This globalization poses new challenges in the conduct of key activities associated with food recalls, such as the traceforward and traceback activities required for a food suspected or confirmed to be unsafe. The FAO/WHO International Food Safety Authorities Network INFOSAN coordinates communication regarding contaminated food which has been internationally distributed to allow for food recalls in importing countries. Such alerts are communicated to national INFOSAN Emergency Contact Points in each country for their attention and action as required.

. What of water is suile for food preparation?

Do not mix raw meat, fish and raw vegeles.

. What is being done to reduce exposure to pesticides?

In , Swedish studies revealed that high levels of acrylamide formed during the frying or baking of potato or cereal products. Studies in laboratory animals suggest acrylamide has a carcinogenic potency in rats that is similar to that of other carcinogens in food, but the intake levels for acrylamide are likely to be higher. A joint FAO/WHO consultation on health implications of acrylamide in foods held in recognized the presence of acrylamide in food as a major concern in humans, given its ability to induce cancers and herile mutations in laboratory animals.

In microbiological terms, there are basically two methods of traditional food preservation;

Definitely long storage will change the quality of the food before the safety is affected. Temperatures over C for an extended time will speed loss of quality. Cans that are rusted or badly dented should be thrown away, no matter their age. Cans and jars with bulging sides or tops should also be thrown away; do not eat any of the food as it may be contaminated with botulinum toxin which can be tal if consumed. Unopened jars or bottles with visible bubbles or disation should also be thrown away.

. How can we reduce the migration of chemicals from plastic into food?

. How safe is organic or locally produced food?

Use vinegar solutions One cup vinegar per gallon of water to wash the interior walls of the refrigerator or freezer.

. What is the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Point system HAP and how does HAP work in food production?

Follow manucturers instructions when using household plastics such as cling films and bags.

The refrigerator or freezer must be empty and unplugged when cleaning.

It is estimated that more than million people worldwide suffer food allergies.

Smoke pointThe temperature at which the breakdown products of t become visible as smoke.

. How to know if meat or fish is properly cooked?

AdditivesNonnutritive substance added intentionally to food, generally in small quantities to improve appearance, flavour, ure or storage properties. Amounts used in food are usually regulated by law.

Carbon monoxide treatment of fish is used where the red colour is an important quality attribute. As a change in colour is used by consumers as a primary assessment of quality, carbon monoxide treatment has the potential to make inferior quality fish appear aesthetically more pleasing to consumers. Therefore, the treatment of fish with carbon monoxide gas is not permitted in Singapore, Canada, the EU and Japan. The use of carbon monoxide to treat fish is undertaken in some Asian countries.

Food should not be cooked excessively, i.e. for too long or at too high a temperature. However, all food, particularly meat and meat products, should be cooked thoroughly to destroy foodborne pathogens.

Once a week, make it a habit to throw out perishable foods that should no longer be eaten.

Majority of tal mushroom poisoning occurs due to ingestion of Amanita Phalloides the death cap, due to its high content of Amatoxin a potent cytotoxin. One mushroom contains enough poison to kill an adult. Cooking or peeling does not inactivate the toxin, and all parts are poisonous. Onset of symptoms occurs hours or more after ingestion of mushrooms. Fatal poisoning is usually associated with delayed onset of symptoms which are very severe, with toxic effect on liver, kidney and nervous system. For absolute safety avoid any wild mushrooms, unless definitely identified as nonpoisonous.

Acrylamide is a chemical which is found in certain foods that have been cooked and processed at high temperatures, and the levels of acrylamide increase with the time of heating. Of the limited range and number of foods analysed to date, acrylamide levels are highest in potato and cerealbased products subjected to heat processing such as frying, grilling or baking. However, the mechanisms of formation of acrylamide in food are poorly understood.

Bacteria and fungi may grow inside the refrigerator if dryness and cleanliness are not maintained. Spoilage bacteria are a major concern as they cause foods to deteriorate and develop unpleasant odors, tastes, and ures. Spoilage bacteria can grow at low temperatures and eventually they cause food to develop off or bad tastes and smells, compromising quality and wholesomeness of food. Pathogenic bacteria do not generally affect the taste, smell, or appearance of a food, but there is a chance of crosscontamination if raw and cooked foods are kept together. Some pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes thrive at cold temperatures and, if present, will multiply in the refrigerator over time and could cause illness.

. What can be done in the kitchen to reduce dietary intake of pesticides?

. Why milk or juice produced in a tetra pack can be kept without refrigeration?

High density polyethylene HDPE is used to make milk, water, and juice bottles, yogurt and margarine tubs and grocery, trash, and retail bags. Highdensity polyethylene is stiff and strong but is not heat sle i.e. it melts at a relatively low temperature. Not known to leach any chemicals that are suspected of causing cancer or disrupting hormones and it can be recycled.

. What is food contamination and what may be potential causes of contamination?

The information available on acrylamide so r reinforces general advice on healthy eating. Bread should be toasted to the lightest colour acceple.

Keep the door closed as much as possible to maintain internal temperature safe. Food within be safe as long as power is out no more than hours without opening the doors. Discard any perishable food such as meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and leftovers that has been above C for over hours. Always discard any items in the refrigerator that have come into contact with raw meat juices.

Remove outer leaves of leafy vegeles, such as cauliflower, cabbage.

. How to get rid of strong food odors inside refrigerator due to food spoilage?

. What precautions should be taken while using microwave oven?

It is always a good idea to rotate canned or packaged foods, and to put dates on packages so that one can know how old the items are.

The milk, fruit juice or cream is pasteurized at a higher temperature C., but for a shorter time which is known as ultrahigh temperature UHT food processing. The UHT milk or juice passes through heating and cooling stages in quick succession, then, is immediately put into a sterile Tetra pack shelfsafe carton. The end result is a product that lasts up to six months without refrigeration or preservatives. Tetra pack products are sterile and safe to consume until theyre opened. After opening it should be stored in the refrigerator. These products are labelled as ultrapasteurized.

Cut the meat open with a clean knife to check it is piping hot all the way through it should be steaming.

Take out all removable parts and wash with mild soap and water.

FortificationAddition of one or more nutrients to a food to make it richer than the unprocessed food, e.g. Vitamin C added to fruit juice.

Foodborne and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases kill an estimated million people worldwide annually, including many children.

If odor persists, let set two to three days, changing vinegar every eight hours.

Some examples of artificial colourants are as follows;

Make sure there is no pink meat left. Meat changes colour when it is cooked.

Most of natural toxins found in fish are produced by species of naturally occurring marine algae. They accumulate in fish when they feed on the algae or on other fish that have fed on the algae. Ciguatera fish poisoning is characterized by numbness and tingling of the lips and tongue, vomiting, diarrhea and is associated with consumption of toxincontaminated subtropical and tropical reef fish. Unfortunately these toxins are not destroyed by normal cooking or processing.

Stir, rotate, or turn food upside down where possible midway through the microwaving time to even the cooking and eliminate cold spots where harmful bacteria can survive. Even if the microwave oven has a turnle, it is still helpful to stir and turn food top to bottom.

When certain diseasecausing bacteria or pathogens contaminate food, they can cause foodborne illness, often called food poisoning. Foods that are contaminated may not look, taste or smell any different from foods that are safe to eat. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria and Escherichia coli E. coli are common bacteria causing foodborne illness. Some foodborne illnesses are mild where most people get better within a few days, but illness can sometimes be more severe, even deadly. Bacillus cereus can form heat resistant spores and a heat resistant toxin in cooked rice left at room temperature. Reheating or lightly cooking the food will not destroy this toxin.

Water is essential in food preparation. It is used to wash food before cooking, it is used to act as a cooking medium, it is used to clean containers of food before and after preparation and it is also used as the most important beverage. Therefore, it is important that all water meant for drinking and cooking purposes should be free from pathogenic bacteria. Water free from pathogenic bacteria and palale is known as pole water. Water used for ice must also be pole. The ice may be used to cool foods or added to cold drinks. It is important to ensure that the ice for cold food storage or for drinks be made from pole water.

A food recall is defined as an action taken to remove foods which may pose a safety risk from the sale, distribution or consumption to consumers. In other words, it is the action to remove food from the market at any stage of the food chain, including that possessed by consumers. The term withdrawal is used widely in relation to food recall. Food recall is a fundamental tool in the management of risks in response to food safety events and emergencies.

Food safety refers to limiting the presence of those hazards whether chronic or acute, that may make food injurious to the health of the consumer. Food safety is about producing, handling, storing and preparing food in such a way as to prevent infection and contamination in the food production chain, and to help ensure that food quality and wholesomeness are maintained to promote good health.

Food fortification has been defined as the addition of one or more essential nutrients to a food, whether or not it is normally contained in the food, for the purpose of preventing or correcting a demonstrated deficiency of one or more nutrients in the population or specific population groups. Food fortification has the advantage of being able to deliver nutrients to large segments of the population without requiring radical changes in food consumption patterns.

It is widely known that pesticides / insecticides and herbicides / fungicides are used for pest and weed / spoilage control. These agrochemicals are available over the counter; rmers may use them without proper understanding or supervision. These chemicals can be hazardous, and there is always a chance of contamination of agriculture produce with residues of these chemicals. Considering the possible health hazard of dietary intake of residues of these chemicals, the Joint FAO/WHO Meetings on Pesticide Residues provides independent scientific expert advice on pesticide residues, residual limits and the acceple maximum dietary intake ADI and maximum residual limit MRL on the basis of evidencebased information and risk assessment.

. What kinds of toxin are present in wild mushrooms and what precautions should be taken?

It has been found that formalin solution has been used by some fish handlers for preservation which may give a special smell; the use of formalin to preserve food is illegal because it is a potent poison, and fish preserved with formalin is not fit for consumption.

Fever and/or the presence of blood or mucus in the stool are signs of bacterial infection that may require a medical consultation.

Food additives are substances not normally consumed as a food by itself and are not normally used as a typical ingredient of the food, whether or not it has nutritive value. In many cases, the intentional addition certain additives to food is for a technological purpose including organoleptic in the manucturing process, and may be added during the preparation, treatment, packing, packaging, transport or holding of such food. The term does not include contaminants, or substances added to food for maintaining or improving nutritional qualities, or sodium chloride. Adequate information shall be given about the manner in which the food additive is to be kept and is to be used in food.

Dont open refrigerator/freezer doors more often than necessary, as temperatures rise when the refrigerator doors open. Close doors as soon as possible to save energy and keep safe temperatures.

Only use cookware that is specially manuctured for use in the microwave oven. Only use products that have been clearly labelled as safe to use in a microwave, whether made from glass or ceramic pottery. Many plastics are not safe in microwaves, where they can melt, form cracks that can cause food leakage, or dissolve, so be extra careful. Most metals, including metal paints on ceramics or glass, are usually not safe either because of the increased risk for sparks and fire.

The underlying principle of all preservation techniques, whether carried out in the home or commercially, is to restrict food spoilage so that food can be used safely in a palale form at a later time. Food preservation should inhibit the growth of harmful microorganisms and arrest the biochemical breakdown of tissues and the transformation of its cell contents. This is achieved by heat, cold, drying, fermentation, radiation and chemicals. The use of ice or snow to preserve foods was known to early man. Fermentation of agricultural produce also was known from early times and it is still practised for preservation of vegeles such as kimchi, sinki, gundruk and pickles. Other popular domestic methods used for food preservation were smoking, drying and salting. Smoking of meat and fish for preservation and flavouring is an old practice.

Careful sampling of the food is necessary for sensory evaluation. It is not always possible to detect with sensory methods alone the contamination of food by pesticides, veterinary drug residues and adulteration. Objective evaluation is done which includes chemical, physiochemical, microbial and physical methods of analysis. Chemical methods include the determination of nutritive value of foods before and after cooking, and to detect the products of decomposition and adulterants in foods. The most widely employed objective evaluation is the measurement of physical properties by the use of instruments. Measurements of the appearance and volume of foods are also important.

ContaminantAny substance not intentionally added to food, which is present in such food as a result of the production including operations carried out in crop husbandry, animal husbandry and veterinary medicine, manucture, processing, preparation, treatment, packing, packaging, transport or holding of such food or as a result of environmental contamination.

. What is food labelling and why it is important?

. What precautions should be taken while buying vegeles and fruits?

Use the correct of plastic for the role, e.g. only use microwavesafe plastics in the microwave.

. What kinds of chemicals are commonly used as colourants or preservatives in fish and what are the associated health risks?

Prepackaged food must be properly labelled for legal, technical and administrative reasons. Food labelling is any written, printed or graphic matter that is present on the label, accompanies the food, or is ed near the food, including that for the purpose of promoting its sale or disposal. Prepackaged food shall not be described or presented on any label or in any labelling in a manner that is lse, misleading or deceptive. The following information should appear on the label of prepackaged foods as applicable to the food being labelled which could be different in each country depending on their national food control system and the existing legislation;

. What can I do to protect myself from foodborne illness?

Ensuring food safety starts with production, at the rm level. In this regard, misuse of agrochemicals, including pesticides, growth hormones and veterinary drugs may have harmful effects on human health. The microbial and chemical risks could be introduced at the rmlevel e.g. using water contaminated by industrial waste or poultry rm waste for irrigation of crops. Good agricultural practices should be applied to reduce microbial and chemical hazards. Organic rming without the use of pesticides has been promoted in many countries of the SouthEast Asia Region, as there is a significant segment of healthconscious people. particularly in urban settings. Although organic products are expensive as compared to commonly available food items, there is a tendency among health conscious consumers to eat less, but buy organic foods.

Pasteurizationthe process of killing harmful organisms in a food product by heating at controlled temperatures below C, commonly applied to milk.

Organic and locally produced foods may have environmental benefits such as using less pesticides or fertilizers. These foods, like others, can be exposed to harmful bacteria during the growing and harvesting process. It is important for rmers and distributors to use good sanitary practices to minimize food contamination. Consumers should always prepare and cook food properly, no matter where it is from.

Lowdensity polyethylene LDPE is used to make films of various sorts, some bread and frozen food bags and squeezable bottles. Lowdensity polyethylene is relatively transparent. Many of the films are not heat sle either and may melt to the food if touching.

toxicological assessment of the pesticide and its residue

. What are acceple daily intake ADI and maximum residual limit MRL?

Some examples of food adulteration are as follows;

Crosscontamination is the transfer of harmful microorganisms from one item of food to another via a nonfood suce such as human hands, equipment, or utensils. It may also be a direct transfer from a raw to a cooked food item. Contaminated water may be potential source of food contamination.

. What are clinical symptoms of foodborne illness?

Quality includes positive and negative attributes that influence a products value to the consumer. Positive attributes that demonstrate good quality may be the origin, colour, flavour, ure and processing method of the food, while negative attributes may be visible spoilage, contamination with filth, discolouration, or bad odours or tastes. However not all unsafe foods may demonstrate bad quality, that is, unsafe food may appear to be of good quality, such as tainted meat disguised using bleach or strong spices. This distinction between safety and quality has implications for public policy and influences the nature and content of the food control system most suited to meet predetermined national objectives.

More information on safe food handling can be obtained from following websites;

It is important to cook all meat properly to kill the bacteria that can cause foodborne illness. Temperature and cooking times will vary depending on the of cut of meat and the method of cooking.

. What is food preservation and which are common methods of preservation?

AdulterationThe process by which the quality or the nature of a given substance is reduced through i the addition of a foreign or an inferior substance, and ii the removal of vital element. Adulteration of food may endanger health if the physiological functions of the consumer are affected.

Thoroughly rinse and scrub fruits and vegeles. Peel them if appropriate.

In addition, polystyrene PS and polyvinyl chloride PVC are also used during food material transportation and handling in supermarkets. Modern food safe plastic bags are plasticizerfree and will not release harmful chemicals into your food while it is being cooked.

Thoroughly wash raw fruits and vegeles with tap water.

FermentationBreakdown of compounds without the use of oxygen, e.g. breakdown of sugar by yeast to form alcohol and carbon dioxide.

Naturally occurring cyanogenic glycosides are found in raw or unprocessed cassava Manihot esculenta, which can cause nerve damage or death if consumed in quantity. To avoid exposure to these toxins, Cassava should be properly prepared before eating. Peel and slice the cassava and then cook it thoroughly, either by baking, boiling or roasting.

Withholding periodthe time interval after the withdrawal of a drug from the treatment of an animal before the animal or its products can be used for human food.

Food contaminants are any substances not intentionally added to food, which are present in such food as a result of the production including operations carried out in crop rming, animal husbandry and aquaculture, manucture, processing, preparation, treatment, packing, packaging, transport or holding of such food or as a result of environmental contamination. Food contamination refers to the presence of harmful chemicals or microorganisms in food, which can cause several debilitating illnesses if consumed. The unintentional contamination may occur during production, processing, storage and marketing. Edible oil may be contaminated during processing due to leakage of mineral oil in production line.

. How many times may cooking oil can be reused for frying and what is the health hazard of reuse of cooked oil?

Some foods contain toxins in their raw form that are made less toxic once cooked. Red kidney beans can contain high dose of lectin which is toxic when consumed in raw form. As few as four or five raw beans can cause severe stomach ache, vomiting and diarrhoea. Therefore red beans must be well cooked or boiled briskly in fresh water for at least minutes to destroy toxins. Similarly, the castor bean lectin ricin is notorious for causing deaths of children when consumed in raw state.

. How is the food recall system supported internationally?

review of residue data from supervised trials and supervised uses including those reflecting national food agricultural practices. Data from supervised trials conducted at the highest nationally recommended, authorized, or registered uses are included in the review. In order to accommodate variations in national pest control requirements,

Solanine, a glycoalkaloid found in high greatest concentration in budding or green areas of the potato, is acutely toxic to humans. Glycoalkaloids are not destroyed by cooking, so it is important to avoid eating the sprouts and to remove any green or damaged parts before cooking. Cucumber may occasionally contain a group of natural toxins known as cucurbitacins. These toxins give cucumber a bitter taste.

. What is pasteurization and how long we can keep pasteurized milk?

Polypropylene PP is more heat resistant, harder, denser and more transparent than polyethylene so is used for heatresistant microwavable packaging and sauce or salad dressing bottles.

Plastic packaging plays a significant role in the shelf life and ease of storage and cooking for many foods and most are safe to use provided that they are used appropriately. Some kinds of plastics materials which are widely used for handling and storage of food and water are as follows

Fill a large shallow container with vinegar. Set in refrigerator or freezer several hours.

ADI and MRLs are also determined for veterinary drug residues and antimicrobial substances as these chemicals are used for growth promotion and animal disease prevention and control.

Clean the vessel in which cooking is performed between uses.

Removal of microorganisms and enzymes in which most of the microorganisms present in the food are killed and enzymes are inactivated, e.g. in canning, cooking, irradiation, blanching etc. Heating food to high temperatures help preserve them through coagulation of proteins, inactivation of their meolic enzymes and destruction of microorganisms. Hight foods do not store well in the frozen state. Oily fish are the most suile for canning. Canning retains the natural flavour of the fish. Botulinum spores are not always killed by the high heat of the canning process, but the poison that these bacteria make does not occur in acidic conditions. Therefore, canning or pickling of vegeles or meat in airtight containers where possible should contain enough acid to prevent toxin formation. Cans that appear to have swelled or bulged, or unopened jars with pressure pop up centres that have popped up should not be consumed and should be thrown away.

Microwaves cause water, t, and sugar molecules to vibrate . million times per second, producing heat. After the oven is off or food is removed from the oven, the molecules continue to generate heat as they come to a standstill. This additional cooking after microwaving stops is called carryover cooking time, resting time, or standing time. It occurs for a longer time in dense foods such as a whole chicken roast than in lessdense foods like breads, small vegeles and fruits. During this time, the temperature of a food can increase several degrees. Additionally, microwave heating is often uneven with focal spots of intense heat may be near areas of cool especially if originally frozen, so standing time allows for more even heat dispersion. For that reason, directions usually advise to let a food rest for a few minutes after turning off the oven or removing food from the oven.

Keep clean hands, kitchen and chopping board all the time.

. What are the ways to reduce human exposure to dioxin?

Proper food handling can prevent most foodborne illness and diseases. Follow WHOs five keys to safer food;

Checking the best before and useby date labels on foods is one of the first things consumers should do before buying. It is important in countries of the SouthEast Asia Region where food safety law enforcement is weak and consumers understanding of food safety issues is limited. It is a common practice for super markets to reduce prices of food items that will soon reach their usebydate so special attention should be paid before purchasing such items to avoid purchasing food that may not be consumed before the expiration date.

. What kind of microbes grow inside refrigerator and how to prevent microbial growth?

. Why should I keep raw food separate from cooked food?

HAP, or the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system, is a process control system that identifies where hazards might occur in the food production process and puts into place stringent actions to prevent the hazards from occurring. By strictly monitoring and controlling each step of the process, there is less chance for hazards to occur. HAP is an integral part of modern food industry used to identify and control major food risks, such as microbiological, chemical and physical contaminants. Consumers can implement HAPlike practices in the home by following proper storage, handling, cooking and cleaning procedures. The introduction of preventive approaches such as HAP, have resulted in industry taking greater responsibility for and control of food safety risks. Such an integrated approach cilitates improved consumer protection, effectively stimulates agriculture and the food processing industry, and promotes domestic and international food trade.

The rapidly changing lifes and increasing reliance on more highly processed foods has been used to justify the addition of nutrients to an expanding range of foods in order to ensure nutritional adequacy of the diet. Fortification of food with micronutrients is a valid technology for reducing micronutrient malnutrition as part of a foodbased approach when and where existing food supplies and limited access il to provide adequate levels of the respective nutrients in the diet. Food technology has been developed for fortification of vitamins and micronutrients in cereals and cereal based products, milk and milk products, ts and oils.Food Safety What you shoulhealth and safety organizationd know

health and safety organizationECRI Institute

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Fornearly years, ECRI Institute, a nonprofit organization, has been dedicated to bringing the discipline of applied scientific research to discover which medical procedures, devices, drugs, and processes are best, all to enable you to improve patient care.

ECRI Institutes technical and market analyses provide our knowledgebase when sitting down with physicians and clinicians to discuss requested equipment.

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Internationahealth and safety organizationl Labour Standards on Occupational Safety and Health

Occupational Safety and Health Dock Work Convention, No.

General Survey on Occupational Safety and Health

The benefits of International Labour Standards

Transport including civil aviation; railways; road transport

to achieve widespread ratification and effective implementation of the occupational safety and health instruments Convention No. , its Protocol and Convention No.

Promotional Framework for Occupational Safety and Health Convention, No.

The ILO Constitution sets forth the principle that workers should be protected from sickness, disease and injury arising from their employment. Yet for millions of workers the reality is very different. The ILO estimates that . million people die each year from workrelated accidents or diseases. A further million people suffer from workrelated diseases, and there are an estimated million tal and nontal workrelated accidents per year. The suffering caused by such accidents and illnesses to workers and their milies is incalculable. In economic terms, the ILO has estimated that of the worlds annual P is lost as a consequence of occupational diseases and accidents. Employers ce costly early retirements, loss of skilled staff, absenteeism, and high insurance premiums due to workrelated accidents and diseases. Yet many of these tragedies are prevenle through the implementation of sound prevention, reporting and inspection practices. ILO standards on occupational safety and health provide essential tools for governments, employers, and workers to eslish such practices and to provide for maximum safety at work. In the ILO adopted anglobal strategy to improve occupational safety and healthwhich included the introduction of a preventive safety and health culture, the promotion and development of relevant instruments, and technical assistance.

A guide to the Occupational Safety and Health Convention, No. , its Protocol and the Promotional Framework for Occupational Safety and Health Convention, No.

Health and safety in particular branches of economic activity

This instrument has the objective of preserving the health and welre of workers employed in trading eslishments, and eslishments, institutions and administrative services in which workers are mainly engaged in office work and other related services through elementary hygiene measures responding to the requirements of welre at the workplace.

Labour Administration, Labour Inspection and Occupational Safety and Health Branch LABADMIN/OSH

Radiation Protection Convention, No.

Working Environment Air Pollution, Noise and Vibration Convention, No.

The convention provides for detailed technical preventive and protective measures having due regard for the specific requirements of this sector. These measures relate to safety of workplaces, machines and equipment used, work at s and work executed in compressed air.

The convention provides for the adoption of a coherent national occupational safety and health policy, as well as action to be taken by governments and within enterprises to promote occupational safety and health and to improve working conditions. This policy shall be developed by taking into consideration national conditions and practice. The Protocol calls for the eslishment and the periodic review of requirements and procedures for the recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases, and for the publication of related annual statistics.

Conference Committee on the Application of Standards

This convention provides for the eslishment of enterpriselevel occupational health services which are entrusted with essentially preventive functions and which are responsible for advising the employer, the workers and their representatives in the enterprise on maintaining a safe and healthy working environment.

Safety and Health in Agriculture Convention, No.

The convention has the objective of preventing accidents and injury to health arising out of, linked with, or occurring in the course of agricultural and forestry work. To this end, the Convention includes measures relating to machinery safety and ergonomics, handling and transport of materials, sound management of chemicals, animal handling, protection against biological risks, and welre and accommodation cilities.

ILO standardsrelated activities in the area of occupational safety and health

Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations

Subjects covered by International Labour Standards

This instrument aims at the eslishment of a mechanism for the creation of a policy to prevent the risks of occupational cancer caused by exposure, generally over a prolonged period, to chemical and physical agents of various s present in the workplace. For this purpose, states are obliged to determine periodically carcinogenic substances and agents to which occupational exposure shall be prohibited or regulated, to make every effort to replace these substances and agents by non or less carcinogenic ones, to prescribe protective and supervisory measures as well as to prescribe the necessary medical examinations of workers exposed.

International Labour Organization ILO

The convention provides that, as r as possible, the working environment shall be kept free from any hazards due to air pollution, noise or vibration. To achieve this, technical measures shall be applied to enterprises or processes, and where this is not possible, supplementary measures regarding the organization of work shall be taken instead.

General Survey on Safety in the Working Environment

International Labour Standards on Occupational Safety and Health

How International Labour Standards are created

Safety and Health in Mines Convention, No.

Building a preventative safety and health culture

ILOCodes of Practiceset out practical guidelines for public authorities, employers, workers, enterprises, and specialized occupational safety and health protection bodies such as enterprise safety committees. They are not legally binding instruments and are not intended to replace the provisions of national laws or regulations, or accepted standards. Codes of Practice provide guidance on safety and health at work in certain economic sectors e.g. construction, opencast mines, coal mines, iron and steel industries, nonferrous metals industries, agriculture, shipbuilding and ship repairing, forestry, on protecting workers against certain hazards e.g. radiation, lasers, visual units, chemicals, asbestos, airborne substances, and on certain safety and health measures e.g. occupational safety and health management systems; ethical guidelines for workers health surveillance; recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases; protection of workers personal data; safety, health and working conditions in the transfer of technology to developing countries.

This Convention aims at promoting a preventative safety and health culture and progressively achieving a safe and healthy working environment. It requires ratifying States to develop, in consultation with the most representative organizations of employers and workers, a national policy, national system, and national programme on occupational safety and health. The national policy shall be developed in accordance with the principles of Article of theOccupational Safety and Health Convention, No. , and the national systems and programmes shall be developed taking into account the principles set out in relevant ILO instruments. A list of relevant instruments is contained in the Annex to the Promotional Framework forOccupational Safety and Health Recommendation, No. . National systems shall provide the infrastructure for implementing national policy and programmes on occupational safety and health, such as laws and regulations, authorities or bodies, compliance mechanisms including systems of inspection, and arrangements at the level of the undertaking. National programmes shall include timebound measures to promote occupational safety and health, enabling a measuring of progress.

The ILO has adopted more than standards specifically dealing with occupational safety and health, as well as over Codes of Practice. Nearly half of ILO instruments deal directly or indirectly with occupational safety and health issues.

The objective of the Convention is to set out basic requirements with a view to protect workers against the risks associated with exposure to ionising radiations. Protective measures to be taken include the limitation of workers exposure to ionising radiations to the lowest practicable level following the technical knowledge available at the time, avoiding any unnecessary exposure, as well as the monitoring of the workplace and of the workers health. The Convention further refers to requirements with regard to emergency situations that may arise.

International Labour Standards on Employment promotion

Applying and promoting International Labour Standards

This instrument regulates the various aspects of safety and health characteristic for work in mines, including inspection, special working devices, and special protective equipment of workers. It also prescribes requirements relating to mine rescue.

ILO is a specialized agency of theUnited Nations

Occupational Cancer Convention, No.

Aims at preventing the harmful effects of exposure to asbestos on the health of workers by indicating reasonable and practicable methods and techniques of reducing occupational exposure to asbestos to a minimum. With a view to achieving this objective, the convention enumerates various detailed measures, which are based essentially on the prevention and control of health hazards due to occupational exposure to asbestos, and the protection of workers against these hazards.

Subjects covered by International Labour Standards

Introduction to International Labour Standards

General Survey on the occupational safety and health instruments concerning the promotional framework, construction, mines and agriculture

The Convention provides for the adoption and implementation of a coherent policy on safety in the use of chemicals at work, which includes the production, the handling, the storage, and the transport of chemicals as well as the disposal and treatment of waste chemicals, the release of chemicals resulting from work activities, and the maintenance, repair and cleaning of equipment and containers of chemicals. In addition, it allocates specific responsibilities to suppliers and exporting states.

An indepth study for discussion with a view to the elaboration of a plan of action for such activities Report VI, International Labour Conference, st Session, [pdf]

Fohealth and safety organizationod safety

Fohealth and safety organizationod safetyThese challenges put greater responsibility on food producers and handlers to ensure food safety. Local incidents can quickly evolve into international emergencies due to the speed and range of product distribution. Serious foodborne disease outbreaks have occurred on every continent in the past decade, often amplified by globalized trade.

grow fruits and vegeles using the WHO Five Keys to Growing Safer Fruits and Vegeles to decrease microbial contamination.

Unsafe food poses global health threats, endangering everyone. Innts, young children, pregnant women, the elderly and those with an underlying illness are particularly vulnerable. Every year million children contract diarrhoeal diseases and die.

WHO aims to cilitate global prevention, detection and response to public health threats associated with unsafe food. Ensuring consumer trust in their authorities, and confidence in the safe food supply, is an outcome that WHO works to achieve.

Unsafe food creates a vicious cycle of diarrhoea and malnutrition, threatening the nutritional status of the most vulnerable. Where food supplies are insecure, people tend to shift to less healthy diets and consume more unsafe foods in which chemical, microbiological and other hazards pose health risks.

helping improve national food systems and legal frameworks, and implement adequate infrastructure to manage food safety risks. The International Food Safety Authorities Network INFOSAN was developed by WHO and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization FAO to rapidly share information during food safety emergencies;

infection leads to unplanned abortions in pregnant women or death of newborn babies. Although disease occurrence is relatively low, listerias severe and sometimes tal health consequences, particularly among innts, children and the elderly, count them among the most serious foodborne infections. Listeria is found in unpasteurised dairy products and various readytoeat foods and can grow at refrigeration temperatures.

such as lead, cadmium and mercury cause neurological and kidney damage. Contamination by heavy metal in food occurs mainly through pollution of air, water and soil.

Urbanization and changes in consumer habits, including travel, have increased the number of people buying and eating food prepared in public places. Globalization has triggered growing consumer demand for a wider variety of foods, resulting in an increasingly complex and longer global food chain.

know the food they use read labels on food package, make an informed choice, become miliar with common food hazards;

Everyone can contribute to food safe. Here are some examples of effective actions

handle and prepare food safely, practicing the WHO Five Keys to Safer Food at home, or when selling at restaurants or at local markets;

build and maintain adequate food systems and infrastructures e.g. laboratories to respond to and manage food safety risks along the entire food chain, including during emergencies;

providing independent scientific assessments on microbiological and chemical hazards that form the basis for international food standards, guidelines and recommendations, known as the Codex Alimentarius, to ensure food is safe wherever it originates;

An estimated million almost in people in the world ll ill after eating contaminated food and die every year, resulting in the loss of million healthy life years DALYs.

The burden of foodborne diseases to public health and welre and to economy has often been underestimated due to underreporting and difficulty to eslish causal relationships between food contamination and resulting illness or death.

Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli

Diarrhoeal diseases are the most common illnesses resulting from the consumption of contaminated food, causing million people to ll ill and deaths every year.

Chemical contamination can lead to acute poisoning or longterm diseases, such as cancer. Foodborne diseases may lead to longlasting disability and death. Examples of unsafe food include uncooked foods of animal origin, fruits and vegeles contaminated with eces, and raw shellfish containing marine biotoxins.

Food safety, nutrition and food security are inextricably linked. Unsafe food creates a vicious cycle of disease and malnutrition, particularly affecting innts, young children, elderly and the sick.

The WHO report on the estimates of the global burden of foodborne diseases presented the firstever estimates of disease burden caused by foodborne agents bacteria, viruses, parasites, toxins and chemicals at global and regional level.

are mainly caused by raw milk, raw or undercooked poultry and drinking water.

foster multisectoral collaboration among public health, animal health, agriculture and other sectors for better communication and joint action;

advocating for food safety as an important component of health security and for integrating food safety into national policies and programmes in line with the International Health Regulations IHR .

WHO works closely with FAO, the World Organization for Animal Health OIE and other international organizations to ensure food safety along the entire food chain from production to consumption.

is associated with unpasteurized milk, undercooked meat and fresh fruits and vegeles.

Food can become contaminated at any point of production and distribution, and the primary responsibility lies with food producers. Yet a large proportion of foodborne disease incidents are caused by foods improperly prepared or mishandled at home, in food service eslishments or markets. Not all food handlers and consumers understand the roles they must play, such as adopting basic hygienic practices when buying, selling and preparing food to protect their health and that of the wider community.

are among the most common foodborne pathogens that affect millions of people annually sometimes with severe and tal outcomes. Symptoms are fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhoea. Examples of foods involved in outbreaks of salmonellosis are eggs, poultry and other products of animal origin. Foodborne cases with

include mycotoxins, marine biotoxins, cyanogenic glycosides and toxins occurring in poisonous mushrooms. Staple foods like corn or cereals can contain high levels of mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin and ochratoxin, produced by mould on grain. A longterm exposure can affect the immune system and normal development, or cause cancer.

The Second International Conference on Nutrition ICN, held in Rome in November , reiterated the importance of food safety in achieving better human nutrition through healthy nutritious diets. Improving food safety is thus a key in achieving Sustainable Development Goals. Governments should make food safety a public health priority, as they play a pivotal role in developing policies and regulatory frameworks, eslishing and implementing effective food safety systems that ensure that food producers and suppliers along the whole food chain operate responsibly and supply safe food to consumers.

Examples include the contamination of innt formula with melamine in affecting innts and young children, of whom died, in China alone, and the EnterohaemorrhagicEscherichia colioutbreak in Germany linked to contaminated fenugreek sprouts, where cases were reported in countries in Europe and North America, leading to deaths and significant economic losses.

promoting safe food handling through systematic disease prevention and awareness programmes, through the WHO Five Keys to Safer Food message and training materials; and

Food supply chains now cross multiple national borders. Good collaboration between governments, producers and consumers helps ensure food safety.

Foodborne pathogens can cause severe diarrhoea or debilitating infections including meningitis.

Access to sufficient amounts of safe and nutritious food is key to sustaining life and promoting good health.

Safe food supplies support national economies, trade and tourism, contribute to food and nutrition security, and underpin sustainable development.

Of most concern for health are naturally occurring toxins and environmental pollutants.

infects people through contaminated water or food. Symptoms include abdominal pain, vomiting and profuse watery diarrhoea, which may lead to severe dehydration and possibly death. Rice, vegeles, millet gruel and various s of seafood have been implicated in cholera outbreaks.

Foodborne illnesses are usually infectious or toxic in nature and caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites or chemical substances entering the body through contaminated food or water.

Antimicrobials, such as antibiotics, are essential to treat infections caused by bacteria. However, their overuse and misuse in veterinary and human medicine has been linked to the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria, rendering the treatment of infectious diseases ineffective in animals and humans. Resistant bacteria enter the food chain through the animals e.g.Salmonellathrough chickens. Antimicrobial resistance is one of the main threats to modern medicine.

Norovirus infections are characterized by nausea, explosive vomiting, watery diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Hepatitis A virus can cause longlasting liver disease and spreads typically through raw or undercooked seafood or contaminated raw produce. Infected food handlers are often the source of food contamination.

think globally and act locally to ensure the food produce domestically be safe internationally.

To do this, WHO helps Member States build capacity to prevent, detect and manage foodborne risks by

Unsafe food containing harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites or chemical substances, causes more than diseases ranging from diarrhoea to cancers.

are compounds that accumulate in the environment and human body. Known examples are dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs, which are unwanted byproducts of industrial processes and waste incineration. They are found worldwide in the environment and accumulate in animal food chains. Dioxins are highly toxic and can cause reproductive and developmental problems, damage the immune system, interfere with hormones and cause cancer.

As the worlds population grows, the intensification and industrialization of agriculture and animal production to meet increasing demand for food creates both opportunities and challenges for food safety. Climate change is also predicted to impact food safety, where temperature changes modify food safety risks associated with food production, storage and distribution.

Foodborne diseases impede socioeconomic development by straining health care systems, and harming national economies, tourism and trade.

Some parasites, such as fishborne trematodes, are only transmitted through food. Others, for example tapeworms likeEchinococcus spp, orTaenia solium, may infect people through food or direct contact with animals. Other parasites, such asAscaris, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba histolyticaorGiardia, enter the food chain via water or soil and can contaminate fresh produce.

assessing the safety of new technologies used in food production, such as genetic modification and nanotechnology;

Children under years of age carry of the foodborne disease burden, with deaths every year.

Prions, infectious agents composed of protein, are unique in that they are associated with specific forms of neurodegenerative disease. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy BSE, or mad cow disease is a prion disease in cattle, associated with the variant CreutzfeldtJakob Disease vCJD in humans. Consuming bovine products containing specified risk material, e.g. brain tissue, is the most likely route of transmission of the prion agent to humans.

integrate food safety into broader food policies and programmes e.g. nutrition and food security;

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The Blist of safety organizationsangladesh Accord

Click here to view our Union and Witness Signatories.Company SignatoriesAustralia

International Labor Rights ForumClean Clothes Campaign

Bangladesh Garments, Textile Leather Workers Federation

Bangladesh Revolutionary Garments Workers Federation

Bangladesh Textile and Garments Workers League

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United Federation of Garments WorkersWitness SignatoriesWorker Rights Consortium

Accord on Fire and Building Safety In Bangladesh

Bangladesh Independent Garments Workers Union Federation

* Not in good standing due to nonpayment of membership fees

Bangladesh Garment Industrial Workers FederationUNI Global Union

The Accord has been signed by over apparel brands, retailers and importers from over countries in Europe, North America, Asia and Australia; two global trade unions; and eight Bangladesh trade unions and four NGO witnesses.

National Weather Assonational safety associationciation

Milestone Achieved For Weathercaster Seal of Approval

Thank you for entrusting me with the office of NWA President. Thank you for supporting me over the decades as an NWA member. Now, lets get to work.

rd NWA Annual Meeting Venue and Hotel Marriott St. Louis Grand,                 Washington Ave., St. Louis, MO

Show others you have skills that meet or exceed the standards of meteorological competency and have proven you clearly deliver weather information via television, radio or the TV/radio or the internet.LEARN MORENWA Annual Meeting

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Platinum, gold, silver, and other sponsorship opportunities are available. More information can be foundhere.

For more information on exhibits, special accommodations, registration and the overall meeting program, keep checking the Annual Meeting Pageand its links, or contact the NWA office at . NWA will provide updates on this Web , on theNWA Facebook PageTwitterand other social media. Please use the hashtagNWASfor any tweets associated with the Annual Meeting.

National Weather Association Foundation Fall Scholarship Winners Announced

We NWA members are inquisitive, intelligent, and goodlooking, right? We love to learn and share our weather passion. We are also a erse groupnot only by traditional definitions of ersity but also by sector, education, training and geography. For us to achieve excellence in operational meteorology to benefit society, there is so much to learn and share. Thats what the NWA is for.

Publish in theNWA Journal of Operational Meteorology, present at an NWA Annual Meeting or regional meeting, or network with others who share your interest in weather at aLocal Chapter meeting.Get Certified

ExhibitorsAllisonHouse LLCAMS BooksBaron ServicesDept. of Water ResourcesEarth NetworksECS, Inc.Gibson Ridge SoftwareJPSS ProgramMidland Radio CorporationNational Weather ServiceOrange Co. Water DistrictUCAR/COMETVizrtThe Weather CompanyWeatherBell AnalyticsWeather MetricsWeidinger PR S. Tahoe WeatherReadyFest

NOAAs National Weather Service NWS wants you to be prepared for hazardous weather yearround. The aim of the National Seasonal Safety Campaign is to build a WeatherReady Nation, one that is prepared for extreme weather, water, and climate events.LEARN MOREJournalsJournal of Operational Meteorology, EJOM and Digest.moreLocal ChaptersCollaborate with others in your area.moreSeal HoldersMembers who have earned a TV, Radio or Digital Seal.moreCorporate MembersWeather Industry LeadersmoreDonateSupport the mission of the NWA.moreConnect and Collaborate!

Connect with others to improve your forecast and warning skills. Collaborate on new operational meteorology techniques, tools, products and services. Get involved with NWA Committees or projects to enhance leadership skills.LEARN MORE

Relationship of LowLevel Insility and Tornado Damage Rating Based on Observed Soundings

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Not a member yet but would like to stay up to date with NAHA? Considering joining but would like to explore the National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy more? Join our enewsletter today and stay in touch.

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Building Strength Through Community And Education

In this st paced world we live in, its so easy to put ourselves last and neglect our health and wellbeing.

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only, and is not intended as a substitute for the advice provided by your healthcare professional or physician.

About Aromatherapy Brochures are now available in the bookstore.

The National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy is a c nonprofit association.

Essential Oils for the Thanksgiving Celebration

NAHA is a recognized leader in the field of aromatherapy.

health and safety organizationOccupational Safety and Health O

The Fire Safety Management Course is a selflearning course located on the International Training Centre ILO ecampus website. It is designed to provide employers, workers and their representatives, as well as others with roles and duties with regards to fire safety with information to enable them to verify that adequate measures are in place to prevent fires occurring, to detect a fire should it occur and to enable all occupants of the building to be efficiently and safely evacuated.

Nine Youth Champions for Occupational Safety and Health OSH from Myanmar participated in the I World Congress on Safety and Health at Work held in Singapore in September . The team of nine youth delegates from Myanmar were selected from amongst more than applicants worldwide to participate in eslishing a new international network of young workers, employers, and government officials representing countries.

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Labour Administration, Labour Inspection and Occupational Safety and Health Branch

Every seconds, a worker dies from a workrelated injury or illness. Listen to ILOs LABADMIN/OSH Chief talk about how the Occupational Safety and Health Global Action for Prevention OSHGAP is working to address this.

Workrelated tal injuries and diseases have increased from . million to . million per year according to new data issued at the World Congress on Safety and Health at Work held in Singapore September, where ILO Director General, Mr. Guy Ryder, launched a call for concerted global action to address new and emerging occupational safety and health challenges.

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This selflearning course on fire safety management is accessible via the International Training Centre ILO ecampus website.

ILO is a specialized agency of theUnited Nations

Transport including civil aviation; railways; road transport

days to go to send us your best instapics / videos / art to win a trip to Singapore! Tell us what safety means to you we would love to hear from you voiceofbaceprot help us spread the word! thx to _maximefossat_ SafeYouthAtWork CultureOfPrevention YouthVoices voicesofyouth globalyouth decentwork sdg ILC

International Day of Persons with Disabilities

The publication gathers evidence on ways to approach OSH within Global Supply Chains discussions and possible entry points to build intervention models for the improvement of OSH in Global Supply Chains.

A contribution to the implementation of Sustainable Development Goal

The ress and Media Competition are key components of the ILO ect being highlighted at the I World Conference on Safety and Health in Singapore.

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list of safety organizationsClubs Organizations Information

Enhance the quality of your college experience.

Student organizations address a broad range of interests, including student government, multicultural groups, service organizations, academic associations, professional organizations, honor societies, as well as programming, religious, political, media, and special interest organizations. While each organization has its own culty or staff advisor, general support for all student organizations is provided through the SLAO. With such a variety of organizations, it should be easy to find one that interests you. If you do not find a group that matches your interests, you may consider starting your own student organization!

Gain experience in the areas of communication, problem solving, marketing, budgeting, teamwork, and organizational management.

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At Es County College, we are dedicated to preparing students to be responsible citizens who demonstrate a commitment to lifelong learning, ethical behavior, personal achievement, and community involvement. One way in which we maintain this commitment to you is through our support of student organizations. Student organizations provide the perfect opportunity to enhance your education by applying what you learn in the classroom to realworld situations. But there is an equally important reason for getting involved participation in student organizations can be fun!

Of course, simply joining an organization does not mean as much as becoming actively involved. Avoid being a backrow member; meet other members, contribute to discussions, ask questions, and volunteer to work on projects. Make the most of your college education!


Influence your campus environment by helping to plan campus programs and events.

Students wishing to eslish a new organization at Es County College must complete the club registration forms. Club registration packets and information can be obtained in the Clara Dasher Student Center, Rm. or call or email the Student Life Activities Office . New clubs are chartered at the beginning of each ll semester.

Meet other students and expand your circle of friends.

With the growing student population here at Es, there is ample opportunity for involvement and a high probability that you can contribute in a leadership position right away. This involvement and leadership experience will help you gain valuable skills that can enhance your success after graduation. College graduates who demonstrate strong leadership traits, in combination with quality academic work, are valued among employers. By becoming a contributing member of an organization you can

Get connected to your College by developing a strong peer group.

Click to View All Clubs Organizations

The Student Life and Activities Office maintains a current listing of chartered student organizations and contact person. If you are looking for information about an organization, this is a good place to start.